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Course 2: Mechanical Engineering
Fall 2024


Fluid Mechanics and Combustion

2.20 Marine Hydrodynamics
______

Graduate (Fall)
Prereq: 1.060, 2.006, 2.016, or 2.06
Units: 4-1-7
Add to schedule Lecture: TR1-2.30 (5-134) Recitation: W11 (1-132) or W1 (1-132) +final
______
The fundamentals of fluid mechanics are developed in the context of naval architecture and ocean science and engineering. Transport theorem and conservation principles. Navier-Stokes' equation. Dimensional analysis. Ideal and potential flows. Vorticity and Kelvin's theorem. Hydrodynamic forces in potential flow, D'Alembert's paradox, added-mass, slender-body theory. Viscous-fluid flow, laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Model testing, scaling laws. Application of potential theory to surface waves, energy transport, wave/body forces. Linearized theory of lifting surfaces. Experimental project in the towing tank or propeller tunnel.
D. Yue
No textbook information available

2.22 Design Principles for Ocean Vehicles
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Subject meets with 2.121, 2.122)
Prereq: 2.20
Units: 3-1-8
______
Design tools for analysis of linear systems and random processes related to ocean vehicles; description of ocean environment including random waves, ocean wave spectra and their selection; short-term and long-term wave statistics; and ocean currents. Advanced hydrodynamics for design of ocean vehicles and offshore structures, including wave forces on towed and moored structures; inertia vs. drag-dominated flows; vortex induced vibrations (VIV) of offshore structures; ship seakeeping and sensitivity of seakeeping performance. Design exercises in application of principles. Laboratory exercises in seakeeping and VIV at model scale.
N. Patrikalakis

2.23 Hydrofoils and Propellers
______

Not offered academic year 2024-2025Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: 2.20 and 18.085
Units: 3-0-9
______
Reviews the theory and design of hydrofoil sections; lifting and thickness problems for sub-cavitating sections and unsteady flow problems. Covers lifting line and lifting surface theory with applications to hydrofoil craft, rudder, control surface, propeller and wind turbine rotor design. Topics include propeller lifting line and lifting surface theory; wake adapted propellers, steady and unsteady propeller thrust and torque; waterjets; performance analysis and design of wind turbine rotors. Presents numerical principles of vortex lattice and lifting surface panel methods. Projects illustrate the development of theoretical and computational methods for lifting, propulsion and wind turbine applications.
P. D. Sclavounos

2.24[J] Seakeeping of Ships and Offshore Energy Systems
______

Not offered academic year 2025-2026Graduate (Spring)
(Same subject as 1.692[J])
Prereq: 2.20 and 18.085
Units: 4-0-8
______
Surface wave theory, conservation laws and boundary conditions, properties of regular surface waves and random ocean waves. Linearized theory of floating body dynamics, kinematic and dynamic free surface conditions, body boundary conditions. Simple harmonic motions. Diffraction and radiation problems, added mass and damping matrices. General reciprocity identities on diffraction and radiation. Ship wave resistance theory, Kelvin wake physics, ship seakeeping in regular and random waves. Discusses point wave energy absorbers, beam sea and head-sea devises, oscillating water column device and Well's turbine. Discusses offshore floating energy systems and their interaction with ambient waves, current and wind, including oil and gas platforms, liquefied natural gas (LNG) vessels and floating wind turbines. Homework drawn from real-world applications.
P. D. Sclavounos

2.25 Fluid Mechanics
______

Graduate (Fall)
Prereq: 2.006 or 2.06; Coreq: 18.075 or 18.085
Units: 4-0-8
Add to schedule Lecture: TR11-12.30 (3-370) Recitation: W1-2.30 (1-371) or W3.30-5 (5-233) +final
______
Survey of principal concepts and methods of fluid dynamics. Mass conservation, momentum, and energy equations for continua. Navier-Stokes equation for viscous flows. Similarity and dimensional analysis. Lubrication theory. Boundary layers and separation. Circulation and vorticity theorems. Potential flow. Introduction to turbulence. Lift and drag. Surface tension and surface tension driven flows.
G. Mckinley
No textbook information available

2.250[J] Fluids and Diseases
______

Not offered academic year 2024-2025Graduate (Spring)
(Same subject as 1.631[J], HST.537[J])
(Subject meets with 1.063)
Prereq: None
Units: 3-3-6
______
Designed for students in engineering and the quantitative sciences who want to explore applications of mathematics, physics and fluid dynamics to infectious diseases and health; and for students in epidemiology, environmental health, ecology, medicine, and systems modeling seeking to understand physical and spatial modeling, and the role of fluid dynamics and physical constraints on infectious diseases and pathologies. The first part of the class reviews modeling in epidemiology and data collection, and highlights concepts of spatial modeling and heterogeneity. The remainder highlights multi-scale dynamics, the role of fluids and fluid dynamics in physiology, and pathology in a range of infectious diseases. The laboratory portion entails activities aimed at integrating applied learning with theoretical concepts discussed in lectures and covered in problem sets. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
L. Bourouiba

2.26[J] Advanced Fluid Dynamics
______

Graduate (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Same subject as 1.63[J])
Prereq: 18.085 and (2.25 or permission of instructor)
Units: 4-0-8
______
Fundamentals of fluid dynamics intrinsic to natural physical phenomena and/or engineering processes. Discusses a range of topics and advanced problem-solving techniques. Sample topics include brief review of basic laws of fluid motion, scaling and approximations, creeping flows, boundary layers in high-speed flows, steady and transient, similarity method of solution, buoyancy-driven convection in porous media, dispersion in steady or oscillatory flows, physics and mathematics of linearized instability, effects of shear and stratification. In alternate years, two of the following modules will be offered: I: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics of Coastal Waters, II: Capillary Phenomena, III: Non-Newtonian Fluids, IV: Flagellar Swimming.
T. Akylas

2.28 Fundamentals and Applications of Combustion
______

Graduate (Fall)
Prereq: 2.006 or (2.051 and 2.06)
Units: 3-0-9
Add to schedule Lecture: TR12.30-2 (3-333)
______
Fundamentals and modeling of reacting gas dynamics and combustion using analytical and numerical methods. Conservation equations of reacting flows. Multi-species transport, chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. Non-equilibrium flow. Detonation and reacting boundary layers. Ignition, flammability, and extinction. Premixed and diffusion flames. Combustion instabilities. Supersonic combustion. Turbulent combustion. Liquid and solid burning. Fire, safety, and environmental impact. Applications to power and propulsion.
A. Ghoniem
No textbook information available

2.29 Numerical Fluid Mechanics
______

Graduate (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Subject meets with 2.290)
Prereq: 18.075 and (2.006, 2.016, 2.06, 2.20, or 2.25)
Units: 4-0-8
______
Introduction to numerical methods and MATLAB: errors, condition numbers and roots of equations. Navier-Stokes. Direct and iterative methods for linear systems. Finite differences for elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic equations. Fourier decomposition, error analysis and stability. High-order and compact finite-differences. Finite volume methods. Time marching methods. Navier-Stokes solvers. Grid generation. Finite volumes on complex geometries. Finite element methods. Spectral methods. Boundary element and panel methods. Turbulent flows. Boundary layers. Lagrangian Coherent Structures. Includes a final research project.  Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
P. F. J. Lermusiaux

2.290 Numerical Fluid Mechanics
______

Undergrad (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Subject meets with 2.29)
Prereq: 2.005
Units: 4-0-8
______
Introduction to numerical methods and MATLAB: errors, condition numbers and roots of equations. Navier-Stokes. Direct and iterative methods for linear systems. Finite differences for elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic equations. Fourier decomposition, error analysis and stability. High-order and compact finite-differences. Finite volume methods. Time marching methods. Navier-Stokes solvers. Grid generation. Finite volumes on complex geometries. Finite element methods. Spectral methods. Boundary element and panel methods. Turbulent flows. Boundary layers. Lagrangian Coherent Structures. Includes a final research project.  Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
Staff

2.341[J] Macromolecular Hydrodynamics
______

Graduate (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Same subject as 10.531[J])
Prereq: 2.25, 10.301, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-6
______
Physical phenomena in polymeric liquids undergoing deformation and flow. Kinematics and material functions for complex fluids; techniques of viscometry, rheometry; and linear viscoelastic measurements for polymeric fluids. Generalized Newtonian fluids. Continuum mechnanics, frame invariance, and convected derivatives for finite strain viscoelasticity. Differential and integral constitutive equations for viscoelastic fluids. Analytical solutions to isothermal and non-isothermal flow problems; the roles of non-Newtonian viscosity, linear viscoelasticity, normal stresses, elastic recoil, stress relaxation in processing flows. Introduction to molecular theories for dynamics of polymeric fluids. (Extensive class project and presentation required instead of a final exam).
G. McKinley

MEMS and Nanotechnology

2.37 Fundamentals of Nanoengineering
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Subject meets with 2.370)
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Presents the fundamentals of molecular modeling in engineering in the context of nanoscale mechanical engineering applications. Statistical mechanics and its connection to engineering thermodynamics. Molecular origin and limitations of macroscopic descriptions and constitutive relations for equilibrium and non-equilibrium behavior. Introduction to molecular simulation, solid-state physics and electrokinetic phenomena. Discusses molecular approaches to modern nanoscale engineering problems. Graduate students are required to complete additional assignments with stronger analytical content.
N. G. Hadjiconstantinou

2.370 Fundamentals of Nanoengineering
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Subject meets with 2.37)
Prereq: Chemistry (GIR) and 2.001
Units: 3-0-9
______
Presents the fundamentals of molecular modeling in engineering in the context of nanoscale mechanical engineering applications. Statistical mechanics and its connection to engineering thermodynamics. Molecular origin and limitations of macroscopic descriptions and constitutive relations for equilibrium and non-equilibrium behavior. Introduction to molecular simulation, solid-state physics and electrokinetic phenomena. Discusses molecular approaches to modern nanoscale engineering problems. Graduate students are required to complete additional assignments with stronger analytical content.
Staff

2.391[J] Nanostructure Fabrication
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Same subject as 6.6600[J])
Prereq: 2.710, 6.2370, 6.2600, or permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
______
Describes current techniques used to analyze and fabricate nanometer-length-scale structures and devices. Emphasizes imaging and patterning of nanostructures, including fundamentals of optical, electron (scanning, transmission, and tunneling), and atomic-force microscopy; optical, electron, ion, and nanoimprint lithography, templated self-assembly, and resist technology. Surveys substrate characterization and preparation, facilities, and metrology requirements for nanolithography. Addresses nanodevice processing methods, such as liquid and plasma etching, lift-off, electroplating, and ion-implant. Discusses applications in nanoelectronics, nanomaterials, and nanophotonics.
Staff

Thermodynamics

2.42 General Thermodynamics
______

Graduate (Fall)
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Add to schedule Lecture: TR2.30-4 (1-375) +final
______
General foundations of thermodynamics from an entropy point of view, entropy generation and transfer in complex systems. Definitions of work, energy, stable equilibrium, available energy, entropy, thermodynamic potential, and interactions other than work (nonwork, heat, mass transfer). Applications to properties of materials, bulk flow, energy conversion, chemical equilibrium, combustion, and industrial manufacturing.
N. Hadjiconstantinou
No textbook information available

2.43 Advanced Thermodynamics
______

Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: 2.42 or permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
______
<p class="xmsolistparagraph">Self-contained concise review of general thermodynamics concepts, multicomponent equilibrium properties, chemical equilibrium, electrochemical potentials, and chemical kinetics, as needed to introduce the methods of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and to provide a unified understanding of phase equilibria, transport and nonequilibrium phenomena useful for future energy and climate engineering technologies. Applications include: second-law efficiencies and methods to allocate primary energy consumptions and CO2 emissions in cogeneration and hybrid power systems, minimum work of separation, maximum work of mixing, osmotic pressure and membrane equilibria, metastable states, spinodal decomposition, Onsager's near-equilibrium reciprocity in thermodiffusive, thermoelectric, and electrokinetic cross effects.
Staff

Heat and Mass Transfer

2.500 Desalination and Water Purification
______

Graduate (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: 1.020, 2.006, 10.302, (2.051 and 2.06), or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Introduces the fundamental science and technology of desalinating water to overcome water scarcity and ensure sustainable water supplies. Covers basic water chemistry, flash evaporation, reverse osmosis and membrane engineering, electrodialysis, nanofiltration, solar desalination, energy efficiency of desalination systems, fouling and scaling, environmental impacts, and economics of desalination systems. Open to upper-class undergraduates.
Staff

2.51 Intermediate Heat and Mass Transfer
______

Undergrad (Fall)
Prereq: (2.005 and 18.03) or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Add to schedule Lecture: TR11-12.30 (1-379)
______
Covers conduction (governing equations and boundary conditions, steady and unsteady heat transfer, resistance concept); laminar and turbulent convection (forced-convection and natural-convection boundary layers, external flows); radiation (blackbody and graybody exchange, spectral and solar radiation); coupled conduction, convection, radiation problems; synthesis of analytical, computational, and experimental techniques; and mass transfer at low rates, evaporation.
A. Patera
No textbook information available

2.52[J] Modeling and Approximation of Thermal Processes
______

Graduate (Fall)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Same subject as 4.424[J])
Prereq: 2.51
Units: 3-0-9
______
Provides instruction on how to model thermal transport processes in typical engineering systems such as those found in manufacturing, machinery, and energy technologies. Successive modules cover basic modeling tactics for particular modes of transport, including steady and unsteady heat conduction, convection, multiphase flow processes, and thermal radiation. Includes a creative design project executed by the students.
Staff

2.55 Advanced Heat and Mass Transfer
______

Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: 2.51
Units: 4-0-8
______
Advanced treatment of fundamental aspects of heat and mass transport. Covers topics such as diffusion kinetics, conservation laws, laminar and turbulent convection, mass transfer including phase change or heterogeneous reactions, and basic thermal radiation. Problems and examples include theory and applications drawn from a spectrum of engineering design and manufacturing problems.
G.Chen

2.57 Nano-to-Macro Transport Processes
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.570)
Prereq: 2.005, 2.051, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Add to schedule Lecture: MW9.30-11 (1-150)
______
Parallel treatments of photons, electrons, phonons, and molecules as energy carriers; aiming at a fundamental understanding of descriptive tools for energy and heat transport processes, from nanoscale to macroscale. Topics include energy levels; statistical behavior and internal energy; energy transport in the forms of waves and particles; scattering and heat generation processes; Boltzmann equation and derivation of classical laws; and deviation from classical laws at nanoscale and their appropriate descriptions. Applications in nanotechnology and microtechnology. Students taking the graduate version complete additional assignments.
G. Chen
No textbook information available

2.570 Nano-to-Macro Transport Processes
______

Undergrad (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.57)
Prereq: 2.005, 2.051, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Add to schedule Lecture: MW9.30-11 (1-150)
______
Parallel treatments of photons, electrons, phonons, and molecules as energy carriers; aiming at a fundamental understanding of descriptive tools for energy and heat transport processes, from nanoscale to macroscale. Topics include energy levels; statistical behavior and internal energy; energy transport in the forms of waves and particles; scattering and heat generation processes; Boltzmann equation and derivation of classical laws; and deviation from classical laws at nanoscale and their appropriate descriptions. Applications in nanotechnology and microtechnology. Students taking the graduate version complete additional assignments.
G. Chen
No textbook information available

2.58 Radiative Transfer
______

Graduate (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: 2.51, 10.302, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Principles of thermal radiation and their application to engineering heat and photon transfer problems. Quantum and classical models of radiative properties of materials, electromagnetic wave theory for thermal radiation, radiative transfer in absorbing, emitting, and scattering media, and coherent laser radiation. Applications cover laser-material interactions, imaging, infrared instrumentation, global warming, semiconductor manufacturing, combustion, furnaces, and high temperature processing.
G. Chen

2.59[J] Thermal Hydraulics in Power Technology
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Same subject as 10.536[J], 22.313[J])
Prereq: 2.006, 10.302, 22.312, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-2-7
Add to schedule Lecture: TR2.30-4 (24-112)
______
Emphasis on thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena and analysis methods for conventional and nuclear power stations. Kinematics and dynamics of two-phase flows. Steam separation. Boiling, instabilities, and critical conditions. Single-channel transient analysis. Multiple channels connected at plena. Loop analysis including single and two-phase natural circulation. Subchannel analysis.
M. Bucci
No textbook information available

Energy and Power Systems

2.60[J] Fundamentals of Advanced Energy Conversion
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Same subject as 10.390[J])
(Subject meets with 2.62[J], 10.392[J], 22.40[J])
Prereq: 2.006, (2.051 and 2.06), or permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
______
Fundamentals of thermodynamics, chemistry, and transport applied to energy systems. Analysis of energy conversion and storage in thermal, mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical processes in power and transportation systems, with emphasis on efficiency, performance, and environmental impact. Applications to fuel reforming and alternative fuels, hydrogen, fuel cells and batteries, combustion, catalysis, combined and hybrid power cycles using fossil, nuclear and renewable resources. CO2 separation and capture. Biomass energy. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
A. Ghoniem

2.603 Fundamentals of Smart and Resilient Grids
______

Undergrad (Fall)
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: 2.003
Units: 4-0-8
______
Introduces the fundamentals of power system structure, operation and control. Emphasizes the challenges and opportunities for integration of new technologies: photovoltaic, wind, electric storage, demand response, synchrophasor measurements. Introduces the basics of power system modeling and analysis. Presents the basic phenomena of voltage and frequency stability as well technological and regulatory constraints on system operation. Describes both the common and emerging automatic control systems and operator decision-making policies. Relies on a combination of traditional lectures, homework assignments, and group projects. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
Staff

2.61 Internal Combustion Engines
______

Graduate (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: 2.006
Units: 3-1-8
______
Fundamentals of how the design and operation of internal combustion engines affect their performance, efficiency, fuel requirements, and environmental impact. Study of fluid flow, thermodynamics, combustion, heat transfer and friction phenomena, and fuel properties, relevant to engine power, efficiency, and emissions. Examination of design features and operating characteristics of different types of internal combustion engines: spark-ignition, diesel, stratified-charge, and mixed-cycle engines. Engine Laboratory project. For graduate and senior undergraduate students.
Staff

2.611 Marine Power and Propulsion
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.612)
Prereq: 2.005
Units: 4-0-8
Add to schedule Lecture: TR9.30-11 (5-217) Recitation: F10 (1-242)
______
Selection and evaluation of commercial and naval ship power and propulsion systems. Analysis of propulsors, prime mover thermodynamic cycles, propeller-engine matching. Propeller selection, waterjet analysis, review of alternative propulsors; thermodynamic analyses of Rankine, Brayton, Diesel, and Combined cycles, reduction gears and integrated electric drive. Battery operated vehicles, fuel cells. Term project requires analysis of alternatives in propulsion plant design for given physical, performance, and economic constraints. Graduate students complete different assignments and exams.
R. McCord
No textbook information available

2.612 Marine Power and Propulsion
______

Undergrad (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.611)
Prereq: 2.005
Units: 4-0-8
Add to schedule Lecture: TR9.30-11 (5-217) Recitation: F10 (1-242)
______
Selection and evaluation of commercial and naval ship power and propulsion systems. Analysis of propulsors, prime mover thermodynamic cycles, propeller-engine matching. Propeller selection, waterjet analysis, review of alternative propulsors; thermodynamic analyses of Rankine, Brayton, Diesel, and Combined cycles, reduction gears and integrated electric drive. Battery operated vehicles, fuel cells. Term project requires analysis of alternatives in propulsion plant design for given physical, performance, and economic constraints. Graduate students complete different assignments and exams.
R. Mccord
Textbooks (Fall 2024)

2.62[J] Fundamentals of Advanced Energy Conversion
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Same subject as 10.392[J], 22.40[J])
(Subject meets with 2.60[J], 10.390[J])
Prereq: 2.006, (2.051 and 2.06), or permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
______
Fundamentals of thermodynamics, chemistry, and transport applied to energy systems. Analysis of energy conversion and storage in thermal, mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical processes in power and transportation systems, with emphasis on efficiency, performance and environmental impact. Applications to fuel reforming and alternative fuels, hydrogen, fuel cells and batteries, combustion, catalysis, combined and hybrid power cycles using fossil, nuclear and renewable resources. CO2 separation and capture. Biomass energy. Meets with 2.60 when offered concurrently; students taking the graduate version complete additional assignments.
Staff

2.625[J] Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fundamentals, Materials and Applications
______

Graduate (Fall)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Same subject as 10.625[J])
Prereq: 2.005, 3.046, 3.53, 10.40, (2.051 and 2.06), or permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
______
Fundamental concepts, tools, and applications in electrochemical science and engineering. Introduces thermodynamics, kinetics and transport of electrochemical reactions. Describes how materials structure and properties affect electrochemical behavior of particular applications, for instance in lithium rechargeable batteries, electrochemical capacitors, fuel cells, photo electrochemical cells, and electrolytic cells. Discusses state-of-the-art electrochemical energy technologies for portable electronic devices, hybrid and plug-in vehicles, electrical vehicles. Theoretical and experimental exploration of electrochemical measurement techniques in cell testing, and in bulk and interfacial transport measurements (electronic and ionic resistivity and charge transfer cross the electrode-electrolyte interface).
Y. Shao-Horn

2.626 Fundamentals of Photovoltaics
______

Graduate (Fall)
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
______
Fundamentals of photoelectric conversion: charge excitation, conduction, separation, and collection. Studies commercial and emerging photovoltaic technologies. Cross-cutting themes include conversion efficiencies, loss mechanisms, characterization, manufacturing, systems, reliability, life-cycle analysis, and risk analysis. Photovoltaic technology evolution in the context of markets, policies, society, and environment. Graduate students complete additional work.
Staff

2.627 Fundamentals of Photovoltaics
______

Undergrad (Fall)
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
______
Fundamentals of photoelectric conversion: charge excitation, conduction, separation, and collection. Studies commercial and emerging photovoltaic technologies. Cross-cutting themes include conversion efficiencies, loss mechanisms, characterization, manufacturing, systems, reliability, life-cycle analysis, and risk analysis. Photovoltaic technology evolution in the context of markets, policies, society, and environment. Graduate students complete additional work.
Staff

2.630 Interfacial Engineering
______

Graduate (Fall)
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: None
Units: 3-0-9
______
Interfacial interactions are ubiquitous in many industries including energy, water, agriculture, medical, transportation, and consumer products. Transport processes are typically limited by interfaces. Addresses how interfacial properties (eg., chemistry, morphology, thermal, electrical) can be engineered for significant efficiency enhancements. Topics include surface tension and wetting phenomena, thermodynamics of interfaces, surface chemistry and morphology, nonwetting, slippery, and superwetting surfaces, charged interfaces and electric double layers, intermolecular forces, Van der Waals and double-layer forces, DLVO theory, electrowetting and electro-osmotic flows, electrochemical bubbles, surfactants, phase transitions, and bio-interfaces. Manufacturing approaches, entrepreneurial efforts to translate technologies to markets, guest lectures and start-up company tours provide real-world exposure.  Anticipated enrollment is 15-20.
Staff

2.65[J] Sustainable Energy
______

Not offered academic year 2024-2025Graduate (Fall)
(Same subject as 1.818[J], 10.391[J], 11.371[J], 22.811[J])
(Subject meets with 2.650[J], 10.291[J], 22.081[J])
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 3-1-8
URL: http://web.mit.edu/10.391J/www/
______
Assessment of current and potential future energy systems. Covers resources, extraction, conversion, and end-use technologies, with emphasis on meeting 21st-century regional and global energy needs in a sustainable manner. Examines various energy technologies in each fuel cycle stage for fossil (oil, gas, synthetic), nuclear (fission and fusion) and renewable (solar, biomass, wind, hydro, and geothermal) energy types, along with storage, transmission, and conservation issues. Emphasizes analysis of energy propositions within an engineering, economic and social context. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
Staff

2.650[J] Introduction to Sustainable Energy
______

Not offered academic year 2024-2025Undergrad (Fall)
(Same subject as 10.291[J], 22.081[J])
(Subject meets with 1.818[J], 2.65[J], 10.391[J], 11.371[J], 22.811[J])
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 3-1-8
______
Assessment of current and potential future energy systems. Covers resources, extraction, conversion, and end-use technologies, with emphasis on meeting 21st-century regional and global energy needs in a sustainable manner. Examines various renewable and conventional energy production technologies, energy end-use practices and alternatives, and consumption practices in different countries. Investigates their attributes within a quantitative analytical framework for evaluation of energy technology system proposals. Emphasizes analysis of energy propositions within an engineering, economic and social context. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments. Limited to juniors and seniors.
Staff

2.651[J] Introduction to Energy in Global Development
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Same subject as EC.711[J])
(Subject meets with EC.791)
Prereq: None
Units: 3-2-7
______
Surveys energy technologies including solar, wind, and hydro power; cooking; indoor heating; irrigation; and agricultural productivity through an international development context to impart energy literacy and common-sense applications. Focuses on compact, robust, low-cost systems for meeting the needs of household and small business. Provides an overview of identifying user needs, assessing the suitability of specific technologies, and strategies for implementation in developing countries. Labs reinforce lecture material through activities including system assembly and testing. Team projects involve activities including connecting with pre-selected community partners, product design and analysis, and continuing the development of ongoing projects. Optional summer fieldwork may be available. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments. Enrollment limited by lottery; must attend first class session.
Daniel Sweeney

2.652[J] Applications of Energy in Global Development
______

Undergrad (Fall)
(Same subject as EC.712[J])
(Subject meets with EC.782)
Prereq: None
Units: 4-0-8
Add to schedule Lecture: TR3-5 (N51-310)
______
Engages students in project-based learning, in collaboration with D-Lab community partners, to improve access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all. Teams work on off-grid energy projects addressing challenges in lighting, cooking, agricultural productivity, or other areas in collaboration with D-Lab community partners in developing countries. Project work includes assessment of user needs, technology identification, product design, prototyping, and development of implementation strategies to continue progress of ongoing projects. Optional IAP field visits may be available to test and implement the solutions developed during the semester. Students enrolled in the graduate version complete additional assignments.  Limited to 20; preference to students who have taken EC.711.
Staff
No textbook information available

Experimental Engineering

2.670 Mechanical Engineering Tools
______

Undergrad (Fall, IAP, Spring)
Prereq: None
Units: 0-1-2
Add to schedule Contact instructors. TBA.
______
Introduces the fundamentals of machine tools use and fabrication techniques. Students work with a variety of machine tools including the bandsaw, milling machine, and lathe. Mechanical Engineering students are advised to take this subject in the first IAP after declaring their major. Enrollment may be limited due to laboratory capacity. Preference to Course 2 majors and minors.
Fall: P. Hayward
Spring: P. Hayward
No textbook information available

2.671 Measurement and Instrumentation
______

Undergrad (Fall, Spring) Institute Lab
Prereq: Physics II (GIR), 2.001, 2.003, and 2.086
Units: 3-3-6
Add to schedule Pre-reg required. Lecture: TR12.30-2 (3-270) Lab: M2-5 (3-038) or T2-5 (3-038) or W2-5 (3-038) or T9-12 (3-038) or R2-5 (3-038) or F2-5 (3-038)
______
Introduces fundamental concepts and experimental techniques for observation and measurement of physical variables such as force and motion, liquid and gas properties, physiological parameters, and measurements of light, sound, electrical quantities, and temperature. Emphasizes mathematical techniques including uncertainty analysis and statistics, Fourier analysis, frequency response, and correlation functions. Uses engineering knowledge to select instruments and design experimental methods to obtain and interpret meaningful data. Guided learning during lab experiments promotes independent experiment design and measurements performed outside the lab in the semester-long "Go Forth and Measure" project. Advances students' ability to critically read, evaluate, and extract specific technical meaning from information in a variety of media, and provides extensive instruction and practice in written, graphical, and oral communication. Enrollment limited.
Fall: B. Hughey
Spring: B. Hughey
No textbook information available

2.673[J] Instrumentation and Measurement for Biological Systems
______

Undergrad (Fall, Spring)
(Same subject as 20.309[J])
(Subject meets with 20.409)
Prereq: (Biology (GIR), Physics II (GIR), 6.100B, and 18.03) or permission of instructor
Units: 3-6-3
Add to schedule Lecture: TRF12 (4-237)
______
Sensing and measurement aimed at quantitative molecular/cell/tissue analysis in terms of genetic, biochemical, and biophysical properties. Methods include light and fluorescence microscopies, and electro-mechanical probes (atomic force microscopy, optical traps, MEMS devices). Application of statistics, probability, signal and noise analysis, and Fourier techniques to experimental data. Enrollment limited; preference to Course 20 undergraduates.
Fall: M. Jonas, S. Wasserman
Spring: A. Hansen, M. Jonas, S. Wasserman
No textbook information available

2.674 Introduction to Micro/Nano Engineering Laboratory
______

Undergrad (Spring)
Prereq: Physics II (GIR) or permission of instructor
Units: 1-3-2
Credit cannot also be received for 2.675, 2.676
______
Presents concepts, ideas, and enabling tools for nanoengineering through experiential lab modules, which include microfluidics, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and nanomaterials and nanoimaging tools such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic-force microscopy (AFM). Provides knowledge and experience via building, observing and manipulating micro- and nanoscale structures. Exposes students to fluid, thermal, and dynamic systems at small scales. Enrollment limited; preference to Course 2 and 2-A majors and minors.
Sang-Gook KIm, A. Gopinath

2.675 Micro/Nano Engineering Laboratory
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.676)
Prereq: 2.25 and (6.777 or permission of instructor)
Units: 2-3-7
Credit cannot also be received for 2.674
Add to schedule Lecture: T2 (1-246) Lab: R9-12 (5-026) or R1-4 (5-026) or F9-12 (5-026) or F1-4 (5-026) Recitation: T1 (1-246)
______
Covers advanced nanoengineering via practical lab modules in connection with classical fluid dynamics, mechanics, thermodynamics, and material physics. Labs include microfluidic systems, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), emerging nanomaterials such as graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and nanoimaging tools. Student teams lead an experimental term project that uses the tools and knowledge acquired through the lab modules and experimental work, and culminates in a report and presentation. Recitations cover idea development, experiment design, planning and execution, and analysis of results pertinent to the project. Enrollment limited.
Gopinath
No textbook information available

2.676 Micro/Nano Engineering Laboratory
______

Undergrad (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.675)
Prereq: 2.001, 2.003, 2.671, and Coreq: (2.005 or (2.051 and 2.06)); or permission of instructor
Units: 2-3-7
Credit cannot also be received for 2.674
Add to schedule Lecture: T2 (1-246) Lab: R9-12 (5-026) or R1-4 (5-026) or F9-12 (5-026) or F1-4 (5-026) Recitation: T3 (1-246)
______
Studies advanced nanoengineering via experiental lab modules with classical fluid dynamics, mechanics, thermodynamics, and materials science. Lab modules include microfluidic systems; microelectromechanical systems (MEMS); emerging nanomaterials, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs); and nanoimaging tools. Recitation develops in-depth knowledge and understanding of physical phenomena observed in the lab through quantitative analysis. Students have the option to engage in term projects led by students taking 2.675. Enrollment limited; preference to Course 2 and 2-OE majors and minors.
J. Kim
No textbook information available

2.677 Design and Experimentation for Ocean Engineering
______

Undergrad (Fall)
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: 2.00A and 2.086; Coreq: 2.016 or permission of instructor
Units: 0-3-3
______
Design and experimental observation for ocean engineering systems focusing on the fundamentals of ocean wave propagation, ocean wave spectra and wave dispersion, cavitation, added mass, acoustic sound propagation in water, sea loads on offshore structures, design of experiments for ship model testing, fish-like swimming propulsion, propellers, and ocean energy harvesting. Emphasizes fundamentals of data analysis of signals from random environments using Fourier transforms, noise filtering, statistics and error analysis using MATLAB. Students carry out experiential laboratory exercises in various Ocean Engineering laboratories on campus, including short labs and demos, longer exercises with written reports, and a final experimental design project. Enrollment may be limited due to laboratory capacity.
A. H. Techet

2.678 Electronics for Mechanical Systems
______

Undergrad (Fall, Spring)
Prereq: Physics II (GIR)
Units: 2-2-2
Add to schedule Lecture: MW11 (3-270) Lab: W12.30-2.30 (3-062B) or W3-5 (3-062B) or R12.30-2.30 (3-062B) or R3-5 (3-062B) or F11-1 (3-062B) or F2-4 (3-062B)
______
Practical introduction to the fundamentals of electronics in the context of electro-mechanical systems, with emphasis on experimentation and project work in basic electronics. Laboratory exercises include the design and construction of simple electronic devices, such as power supplies, amplifiers, op-amp circuits, switched mode dc-dc converters, and dc motor drivers. Surveys embedded microcontrollers as system elements. Laboratory sessions stress the understanding of electronic circuits at the component level, but also point out the modern approach of system integration using commercial modules and specialized integrated circuits. Enrollment may be limited due to laboratory capacity; preference to Course 2 majors and minors.
Fall: Buonassisi, S. Banzaert
Spring: J. Leonard, S. Banzaert
No textbook information available

2.679 Electronics for Mechanical Systems II
______

Undergrad (Spring)
Prereq: 2.086, 2.678, and 18.03
Units: 2-3-1
______
Extends the concepts and techniques developed in 2.678 to include complex systems and modeling of real-world elements with a strong emphasis on lab experimentation and independent project work. Topics include sampling theory, energy storage, embedded mobile systems, autonomous navigation, printed circuit board design, system integration, and machine vision. Enrollment may be limited; preference to Course 2 majors.
S. Banzaert, J. Leonard

Oceanographic Engineering and Acoustics

2.680 Unmanned Marine Vehicle Autonomy, Sensing, and Communication
______

Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 2-6-4
______
Focuses on software and algorithms for autonomous decision making (autonomy) by underwater vehicles operating in ocean environments. Discusses how autonomous marine vehicles (UMVs) adapt to the environment for improved sensing performance. Covers sensors for acoustic, biological and chemical sensing and their integration with the autonomy system for environmentally adaptive undersea mapping and observation. Introduces students to the underwater acoustic communication environment and various options for undersea navigation, highlighting their relevance to the operation of collaborative undersea networks for environmental sensing. Labs involve the use of the MOOP-IvP autonomy software for the development of integrated sensing, modeling and control solutions. Solutions modeled in simulation environments and include field tests with small autonomous surface and underwater vehicles operated on the Charles River. Limited enrollment.
Staff

2.681 Environmental Ocean Acoustics
______

Graduate (Fall)
Prereq: 2.066, 18.075, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Add to schedule Lecture: TR1-2.30 (54-819)
______
Fundamentals of underwater sound, and its application to mapping and surveillance in an ocean environment. Wave equations for fluid and elastic media. Reflection and transmission of sound at plane interfaces. Wave theory representation of acoustic source radiation and propagation in shallow and deep ocean waveguides. Interaction of underwater sound with elastic waves in the seabed and an Arctic ice cover, including effects of porosity and anisotropy. Numerical modeling of the propagation of underwater sound, including spectral methods, normal mode theory, and the parabolic equation method, for laterally homogeneous and inhomogeneous environments. Doppler effects. Effects of oceanographic variability and fluctuation - spatial and temporal coherence. Generation and propagation of ocean ambient noise. Modeling and simulation of signals and noise in traditional sonar systems, as well as modern, distributed, autonomous acoustic surveillance systems.
J. Bonnel, H. Schmidt, E. Fischell
Textbooks (Fall 2024)

2.682 Acoustical Oceanography
______

Graduate (Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: 2.681
Units: 3-0-9
______
Provides brief overview of what important current research topics are in oceanography (physical, geological, and biological) and how acoustics can be used as a tool to address them. Three typical examples are climate, bottom geology, and marine mammal behavior. Addresses the acoustic inverse problem, reviewing inverse methods (linear and nonlinear) and the combination of acoustical methods with other measurements as an integrated system. Concentrates on specific case studies, taken from current research journals.
Staff

2.683 Marine Bioacoustics and Geoacoustics
______

Graduate (Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: 2.681
Units: 3-0-9
______
Both active and passive acoustic methods of measuring marine organisms, the seafloor, and their interactions are reviewed. Acoustic methods of detecting, observing, and quantifying marine biological organisms are described, as are acoustic methods of measuring geological properties of the seafloor, including depth, and surficial and volumetric composition. Interactions are also described, including effects of biological scatterers on geological measurements, and effects of seafloor scattering on measurements of biological scatterers on, in, or immediately above the seafloor. Methods of determining small-scale material properties of organisms and the seafloor are outlined. Operational methods are emphasized, and corresponding measurement theory is described. Case studies are used in illustration. Principles of acoustic-system calibration are elaborated.
K. G. Foote, Woods Hole Staff

2.684 Wave Scattering by Rough Surfaces and Inhomogeneous Media
______

Graduate (Fall) Can be repeated for credit
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: 2.066 or permission of instrctor
Units: 3-0-9
______
An advanced-level subject designed to give students a working knowledge of current techniques in this area. Material is presented principally in the context of ocean acoustics, but can be used in other acoustic and electromagnetic applications. Includes fundamentals of wave propagation through, and/or scattering by: random media, extended coherent structures, rough surfaces, and discrete scatterers.
A. Lavery

2.687 Time Series Analysis and System Identification
______

Graduate (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: 6.3010 and 18.06
Units: 3-0-9
______
Covers matched filtering, power spectral (PSD) estimation, and adaptive signal processing / system identification algorithms. Algorithm development is framed as an optimization problem, and optimal and approximate solutions are described. Reviews time-varying systems, first and second moment representations of stochastic processes, and state-space models. Also covers algorithm derivation, performance analysis, and robustness to modeling errors. Algorithms for PSD estimation, the LMS and RLS algorithms, and the Kalman Filter are treated in detail.
Staff

2.688 Principles of Oceanographic Instrument Systems -- Sensors and Measurements
______

Graduate (Fall)
Prereq: 2.671 and 18.075
Units: 3-3-6
Add to schedule Lecture: TR10.30-12 (54-827) Lab: T2.30-5.30 (54-827)
______
Introduces theoretical and practical principles of design of oceanographic sensor systems. Transducer characteristics for acoustic, current, temperature, pressure, electric, magnetic, gravity, salinity, velocity, heat flow, and optical devices. Limitations on these devices imposed by ocean environment. Signal conditioning and recording; noise, sensitivity, and sampling limitations; standards. Principles of state-of-the-art systems being used in physical oceanography, geophysics, submersibles, acoustics discussed in lectures by experts in these areas. Day cruises in local waters during which the students will prepare, deploy and analyze observations from standard oceanographic instruments constitute the lab work for this subject.
T. Maksym
No textbook information available

2.689[J] Projects in Oceanographic Engineering
______

Graduate (Fall, Spring, Summer) Can be repeated for credit
(Same subject as 1.699[J])
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
Add to schedule TBA.
______
Projects in oceanographic engineering, carried out under supervision of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution staff. Given at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
M. Bittrich
No textbook information available

2.690 Corrosion in Marine Engineering
______

Graduate (Summer)
Prereq: 3.012 and permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-3
______
Introduction to forms of corrosion encountered in marine systems material selection, coatings and protection systems. Case studies and causal analysis developed through student presentations.
J. Page, T. Eagar
No textbook information available

Naval Architecture

2.700 Principles of Naval Architecture
______

Undergrad (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.701)
Prereq: 2.002
Units: 4-2-6
Add to schedule Lecture: MW9.30-11 (5-217) Lab: F1 (1-150)
______
Presents principles of naval architecture, ship geometry, hydrostatics, calculation and drawing of curves of form, intact and damage stability, hull structure strength calculations and ship resistance. Introduces computer-aided naval ship design and analysis tools. Projects include analysis of ship lines drawings, calculation of ship hydrostatic characteristics, analysis of intact and damaged stability, ship model testing, and hull structure strength calculations. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
A. Gillespy, C. MacLean
No textbook information available

2.701 Principles of Naval Architecture
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.700)
Prereq: 2.002
Units: 4-2-6
Add to schedule Lecture: MW9.30-11 (5-217) Lab: F1 (1-150)
______
Presents principles of naval architecture, ship geometry, hydrostatics, calculation and drawing of curves of form, intact and damage stability, hull structure strength calculations and ship resistance. Introduces computer-aided naval ship design and analysis tools. Projects include analysis of ship lines drawings, calculation of ship hydrostatic characteristics, analysis of intact and damaged stability, ship model testing, and hull structure strength calculations. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
A. Gillespy, C. MacLean
No textbook information available

2.702 Systems Engineering and Naval Ship Design
______

Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: 2.701
Units: 3-3-6
______
Introduces principles of systems engineering and ship design with an overview of naval ship design and acquisition processes, requirements setting, formulation of a systematic plan, design philosophy and constraints, formal decision making methods, selection criteria, optimization, variant analysis, trade-offs, analysis of ship design trends, risk, and cost analysis. Emphasizes the application of principles through completion of a design exercise and project.
A. Gillespy, C. MacLean

2.703 Principles of Naval Ship Design
______

Graduate (Fall)
Prereq: 2.082, 2.20, 2.611, and 2.702
Units: 4-2-6
Add to schedule Lecture: TR11-12.30 (5-217) Recitation: W3 (5-217)
______
Covers the design of surface ship platforms for naval applications. Includes topics such as hull form selection and concept design synthesis, topside and general arrangements, weight estimation, and technical feasibility analyses (including strength, stability, seakeeping, and survivability.). Practical exercises involve application of design principles and utilization of advanced computer-aided ship design tools.
A. Gillespy, C. MacLean
No textbook information available

2.704 Projects in Naval Ship Conversion Design
______

Graduate (IAP, Spring)
Prereq: 2.703
Units: 1-6-5
______
Focuses on conversion design of a naval ship. A new mission requirement is defined, requiring significant modification to an existing ship. Involves requirements setting, design plan formulation and design philosophy, and employs formal decision-making methods. Technical aspects demonstrate feasibility and desirability. Includes formal written and verbal reports and team projects.
IAP: A. Gillespy, C. MacLean
Spring: A. Gillespy, C. MacLean

2.705 Projects in New Concept Naval Ship Design
______

Graduate (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: 2.704
Units arranged
Add to schedule TBA.
______
Focus on preliminary design of a new naval ship, fulfilling a given set of mission requirements. Design plan formulation, system level trade-off studies, emphasizes achieving a balanced design and total system integration. Formal written and oral reports. Team projects extend over three terms.
Fall: A. Gillespy, C. MacLean
Spring: A. Gillespy, C. MacLean
No textbook information available

2.707 Submarine Structural Acoustics
______

Graduate (Spring); first half of term
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: 2.066
Units: 2-0-4
______
Introduction to the acoustic interaction of submerged structures with the surrounding fluid. Fluid and elastic wave equations. Elastic waves in plates. Radiation and scattering from planar structures as well as curved structures such as spheres and cylinders. Acoustic imaging of structural vibrations. Students can take 2.085 in the second half of term.
H. Schmidt

2.708 Traditional Naval Architecture Design
______

Graduate (IAP)
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: None
Units: 2-0-1 [P/D/F]
______
Week-long intensive introduction to traditional design methods in which students hand draw a lines plan of a N. G. Herreshoff (MIT Class of 1870) design based on hull shape offsets taken from his original design model. After completing the plan, students then carve a wooden half-hull model of the boat design. Covers methods used to develop hull shape analysis data from lines plans. Provides students with instruction in safe hand tool use and how to transfer their lines to 3D in the form of their model. Limited to 15.
Staff

Optics

2.71 Optics
______

Undergrad (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.710)
Prereq: (Physics II (GIR), 2.004, and 18.03) or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Add to schedule Lecture: MW9.30-11 (5-134)
______
Introduction to optical science with elementary engineering applications. Geometrical optics: ray-tracing, aberrations, lens design, apertures and stops, radiometry and photometry. Wave optics: basic electrodynamics, polarization, interference, wave-guiding, Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction, image formation, resolution, space-bandwidth product. Emphasis on analytical and numerical tools used in optical design. Graduate students are required to complete additional assignments with stronger analytical content, and an advanced design project.
G. Barbastathis, Tadesse
Textbooks (Fall 2024)

2.710 Optics
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.71)
Prereq: (Physics II (GIR), 2.004, and 18.03) or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Add to schedule Lecture: MW9.30-11 (5-134)
______
Introduction to optical science with elementary engineering applications. Geometrical optics: ray-tracing, aberrations, lens design, apertures and stops, radiometry and photometry. Wave optics: basic electrodynamics, polarization, interference, wave-guiding, Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction, image formation, resolution, space-bandwidth product. Emphasis on analytical and numerical tools used in optical design. Graduate students are required to complete additional assignments with stronger analytical content, and an advanced design project.
G. Barbastathis, Tadesse
No textbook information available

2.715[J] Optical Microscopy and Spectroscopy for Biology and Medicine
______

Graduate (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Same subject as 20.487[J])
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Introduces the theory and the design of optical microscopy and its applications in biology and medicine. The course starts from an overview of basic optical principles allowing an understanding of microscopic image formation and common contrast modalities such as dark field, phase, and DIC. Advanced microscopy imaging techniques such as total internal reflection, confocal, and multiphoton will also be discussed. Quantitative analysis of biochemical microenvironment using spectroscopic techniques based on fluorescence, second harmonic, Raman signals will be covered. We will also provide an overview of key image processing techniques for microscopic data.
Staff

2.717 Optical Engineering
______

Graduate (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: 2.710 or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Theory and practice of optical methods in engineering and system design. Emphasis on diffraction, statistical optics, holography, and imaging. Provides engineering methodology skills necessary to incorporate optical components in systems serving diverse areas such as precision engineering and metrology, bio-imaging, and computing (sensors, data storage, communication in multi-processor systems). Experimental demonstrations and a design project are included.
Staff

2.718 Photonic Materials
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Subject meets with 2.719)
Prereq: 2.003, 8.03, 6.2370, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Provides a review of Maxwell's equations and the Helmholtz wave equation. Optical devices: waveguides and cavities, phase and group velocity, causality, and scattering. Light-matter interaction in bulk, surface, and subwavelength-structured matter. Effective media, dispersion relationships, wavefronts and rays, eikonal description of light propagation, phase singularities. Transformation optics, gradient effective media. Includes description of the experimental tools for realization and measurement of photonic materials and effects. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
S. Boriskina

2.719 Photonic Materials
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Subject meets with 2.718)
Prereq: 2.003, 8.03, 6.2370, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Provides a review of Maxwell's equations and the Helmholtz wave equation. Optical devices: waveguides and cavities, phase and group velocity, causality, and scattering. Light-matter interaction in bulk, surface, and subwavelength-structured matter. Effective media, dispersion relationships, wavefronts and rays, eikonal description of light propagation, phase singularities. Transformation optics, gradient effective media. Includes description of the experimental tools for realization and measurement of photonic materials and effects. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
S. Boriskina

Design

2.70 FUNdaMENTALS of Precision Product Design
______

Undergrad (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.77)
Prereq: 2.008
Units: 3-3-6
Add to schedule Lecture: TR3.30-5 (3-442) Lab: T12.30-3.30 (3-442)
______
Examines design, selection, and combination of machine elements to produce a robust precision system. Introduces process, philosophy and physics-based principles of design to improve/enable renewable power generation, energy efficiency, and manufacturing productivity. Topics include linkages, power transmission, screws and gears, actuators, structures, joints, bearings, error apportionment, and error budgeting. Considers each topic with respect to its physics of operation, mechanics (strength, deformation, thermal effects) and accuracy, repeatability, and resolution. Includes guest lectures from practicing industry and academic leaders. Students design, build, and test a small benchtop precision machine, such as a heliostat for positioning solar PV panels or a two or three axis machine. Prior to each lecture, students review the pre-recorded detailed topic materials and then converge on what parts of the topic they want covered in extra depth in lecture. Students are assessed on their preparation for and participation in class sessions. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments. Enrollment limited.
A. Slocum
No textbook information available

2.77 FUNdaMENTALS of Precision Product Design
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.70)
Prereq: 2.008
Units: 3-3-6
Add to schedule Lecture: TR3.30-5 (3-442) Lab: T12.30-3.30 (3-442)
______
Examines design, selection, and combination of machine elements to produce a robust precision system. Introduces process, philosophy and physics-based principles of design to improve/enable renewable power generation, energy efficiency, and manufacturing productivity. Topics include linkages, power transmission, screws and gears, actuators, structures, joints, bearings, error apportionment, and error budgeting. Considers each topic with respect to its physics of operation, mechanics (strength, deformation, thermal effects) and accuracy, repeatability, and resolution. Includes guest lectures from practicing industry and academic leaders. Students design, build, and test a small benchtop precision machine, such as a heliostat for positioning solar PV panels or a two or three axis machine. Prior to each lecture, students review the pre-recorded detailed topic materials and then converge on what parts of the topic they want covered in extra depth in lecture. Students are assessed on their preparation for and participation in class sessions. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments. Enrollment limited.
A. Slocum
No textbook information available

2.72 Elements of Mechanical Design
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Subject meets with 2.720)
Prereq: 2.008 and (2.005 or 2.051); Coreq: 2.671
Units: 3-3-6
______
Advanced study of modeling, design, integration, and best practices for use of machine elements, such as bearings, bolts, belts, flexures, and gears. Modeling and analysis is based upon rigorous application of physics, mathematics, and core mechanical engineering principles, which are reinforced via laboratory experiences and a design project in which students model, design, fabricate, and characterize a mechanical system that is relevant to a real-world application. Activities and quizzes are directly related to, and coordinated with, the project deliverables. Develops the ability to synthesize, model and fabricate a design subject to engineering constraints (e.g., cost, time, schedule). Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments. Enrollment limited.
M. L. Culpepper

2.720 Elements of Mechanical Design
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Subject meets with 2.72)
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 3-3-6
______
Advanced study of modeling, design, integration, and best practices for use of machine elements, such as bearings, bolts, belts, flexures, and gears. Modeling and analysis is based upon rigorous application of physics, mathematics, and core mechanical engineering principles, which are reinforced via laboratory experiences and a design project in which students model, design, fabricate, and characterize a mechanical system that is relevant to a real-world application. Activities and quizzes are directly related to, and coordinated with, the project deliverables. Develops the ability to synthesize, model and fabricate a design subject to engineering constraints (e.g., cost, time, schedule). Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
M. L. Culpepper

2.722[J] D-Lab: Design
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Same subject as EC.720[J])
Prereq: 2.670 or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Addresses problems faced by underserved communities with a focus on design, experimentation, and prototyping processes. Particular attention placed on constraints faced when designing for developing countries. Multidisciplinary teams work on long-term projects in collaboration with community partners, field practitioners, and experts in relevant fields. Topics covered include design for affordability, manufacture, sustainability, and strategies for working effectively with community partners and customers. Students may continue projects begun in EC.701. Enrollment limited by lottery; must attend first class session.
E. Squibb

2.7231[J] Introduction to Design Thinking and Innovation in Engineering
______

Undergrad (Fall, Spring); first half of term
(Same subject as 6.9101[J], 16.6621[J])
Prereq: None
Units: 2-0-1 [P/D/F]
Add to schedule Ends Oct 25. Lecture: M EVE (7-9 PM) (32-141) Recitation: M EVE (9 PM) (32-123)
______
Introduces students to concepts of design thinking and innovation that can be applied to any engineering discipline. Focuses on introducing an iterative design process, a systems-thinking approach for stakeholder analysis, methods for articulating design concepts, methods for concept selection, and techniques for testing with users. Provides an opportunity for first-year students to explore product or system design and development, and to build their understanding of what it means to lead and coordinate projects in engineering design. Subject can count toward the 6-unit discovery-focused credit limit for first-year students. Enrollment limited to 25; priority to first-year students.
C. Kotelly
No textbook information available

2.723A Design Thinking and Innovation Leadership for Engineers
______

Undergrad (Fall, Spring); first half of term
Engineering School-Wide Elective Subject.
(Offered under: 2.723A, 6.910A, 16.662A)
Prereq: None
Units: 2-0-1
Add to schedule Ends Oct 25. Lecture: M EVE (7-9 PM) (32-141) or M3-5 (32-141) Recitation: M EVE (9 PM) (32-123)
______
Introductory subject in design thinking and innovation. Develops students' ability to conceive, implement, and evaluate successful projects in any engineering discipline. Lessons focus on an iterative design process, a systems-thinking approach for stakeholder analysis, methods for articulating design concepts, methods for concept selection, and techniques for testing with users.
Fall: B. Kotelly
Spring: B. Kotelly
No textbook information available

2.723B Design Thinking and Innovation Project
______

Undergrad (Fall, Spring); second half of term
Engineering School-Wide Elective Subject.
(Offered under: 2.723B, 6.910B, 16.662B)
Prereq: 6.910A
Units: 2-0-1
Add to schedule Begins Oct 28. Lecture: M EVE (7-9 PM) (32-141) or M3-5 (32-141) Recitation: M EVE (9 PM) (32-123)
______
Project-based subject. Students employ design-thinking techniques learned in 6.902A to develop a robust speech-recognition application using a web-based platform. Students practice in leadership and teamwork skills as they collaboratively conceive, implement, and iteratively refine their designs based on user feedback. Topics covered include techniques for leading the creative process in teams, the ethics of engineering systems, methods for articulating designs with group collaboration, identifying and reconciling paradoxes of engineering designs, and communicating solution concepts with impact. Students present oral presentations and receive feedback to sharpen their communication skills.
B. Kotelly
No textbook information available

2.729[J] D-Lab: Design for Scale
______

Undergrad (Fall)
(Same subject as EC.729[J])
(Subject meets with 2.789[J], EC.797[J])
Prereq: None. Coreq: 2.008; or permission of instructor
Units: 3-2-7
Add to schedule Lecture: TR11.30-1 (N51-310) Lab: R1-2.30 (N51-310)
______
Explores the external factors affecting product development for people in low-resource settings in a project-based context. Students apply existing engineering skills in interdisciplinary teams to identify contextual limitations and develop previously established prototypes towards manufacturing-ready product designs for real-world project sponsors. Topics are presented within the context of the developing world and include technology feasibility and scalability assessment; value chain analysis; product specification; and manufacturing methodologies at various scales. Lessons are experiential and case study-based, taught by instructors with field experience and industry experts from product development consulting firms and the consumer electronics industry. Students taking graduate version complete additional written assignments.
M. Yang, G. Connors, E. Young
No textbook information available

2.733 Engineering Systems Design
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.013)
Prereq: (2.001, 2.003, (2.005 or 2.051), and (2.00B, 2.670, or 2.678)) or permission of instructor
Units: 0-6-6
Add to schedule Lecture: TR2.30-5 (NE45-202A)
______
Focuses on the design of engineering systems to satisfy stated performance, stability, and/or control requirements. Emphasizes individual initiative, application of fundamental principles, and the compromises inherent in the engineering design process. Culminates in the design of an engineering system, typically a vehicle or other complex system. Includes instruction and practice in written and oral communication through team presentation, design reviews, and written reports. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments. Enrollment may be limited due to laboratory capacity.
D. Hart
No textbook information available

2.734 Engineering Systems Development
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Subject meets with 2.014)
Prereq: (2.001, 2.003, (2.005 or 2.051), and (2.00B, 2.670, or 2.678)) or permission of instructor
Units: 0-6-6
______
Focuses on the implementation and operation of engineering systems. Emphasizes system integration and performance verification using methods of experimental inquiry. Students refine their subsystem designs and the fabrication of working prototypes. Includes experimental analysis of subperformance and comparison with physical models of performance and with design goals. component integration into the full system, with detailed analysis and operation of the complete vehicle in the laboratory and in the field. Includes written and oral reports. Students carry out formal reviews of the overall system design. Instruction and practice in oral and written communication provided. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments. Enrollment may be limited due to laboratory capacity.
D. Hart

2.737 Mechatronics
______

Not offered academic year 2024-2025Graduate (Fall)
Prereq: 6.2000 and (2.14, 6.3100, or 16.30)
Units: 3-5-4
______
Introduction to designing mechatronic systems, which require integration of the mechanical and electrical engineering disciplines within a unified framework. Significant laboratory-based design experiences form subject's core. Final project. Topics include: low-level interfacing of software with hardware; use of high-level graphical programming tools to implement real-time computation tasks; digital logic; analog interfacing and power amplifiers; measurement and sensing; electromagnetic and optical transducers; control of mechatronic systems. Limited to 20.
D. Trumper

2.739[J] Product Design and Development
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Same subject as 15.783[J])
Prereq: 2.009, 15.761, 15.778, 15.814, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-3-6
______
Covers modern tools and methods for product design and development. Includes a cornerstone project in which teams conceive, design and prototype a physical product and/or service. Covers human-centered design, agile development, product planning, identifying customer needs, concept generation, product architecture, industrial design, concept design, green design methods, and product management. Sloan students register via Sloan course bidding. Engineering students accepted via lottery based on WebSIS pre-registration.
S. Eppinger

2.74 Bio-inspired Robotics
______

Undergrad (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.740)
Prereq: 2.004 or permission of instructor
Units: 3-1-8
Add to schedule Lecture: MW11-12.30 (3-370) Lab: M2-5 (3-147) or T2-5 (3-147) or W2-5 (3-147) or R2-5 (3-147)
______
Interdisciplinary approach to bio-inspired design, with emphasis on principle extraction applicable to various robotics research fields, such as robotics, prosthetics, and human assistive technologies. Focuses on three main components: biomechanics, numerical techniques that allow multi-body dynamics simulation with environmental interaction and optimization, and basic robotics techniques and implementation skills. Students integrate the components into a final robotic system project of their choosing through which they must demonstrate their understanding of dynamics and control and test hypothesized design principles. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments. Enrollment may be limited due to laboratory capacity.
S. Kim
No textbook information available

2.740 Bio-inspired Robotics
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.74)
Prereq: 2.004 or permission of instructor
Units: 3-3-6
Add to schedule Lecture: MW11-12.30 (3-370) Lab: M2-5 (3-147) or T2-5 (3-147) or W2-5 (3-147) or R2-5 (3-147)
______
Interdisciplinary approach to bio-inspired design, with emphasis on principle extraction applicable to various robotics research fields, such as robotics, prosthetics, and human assistive technologies. Focuses on three main components: biomechanics, numerical techniques that allow multi-body dynamics simulation with environmental interaction and optimization, and basic robotics techniques and implementation skills. Students integrate the components into a final robotic system project of their choosing through which they must demonstrate their understanding of dynamics and control and test hypothesized design principles. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments. Enrollment may be limited due to lab capacity.
S. Kim
No textbook information available

2.744 Product Design
______

Graduate (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: 2.009
Units: 3-0-9
______
Project-centered subject addressing transformation of ideas into successful products which are properly matched to the user and the market. Students are asked to take a more complete view of a new product and to gain experience with designs judged on their aesthetics, ease of use, and sensitivities to the realities of the marketplace. Lectures on modern design process, industrial design, visual communication, form-giving, mass production, marketing, and environmentally conscious design.
D. R. Wallace

2.75[J] Medical Device Design
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Same subject as 6.4861[J], HST.552[J])
(Subject meets with 2.750[J], 6.4860[J])
Prereq: 2.008, 6.2040, 6.2050, 6.2060, 22.071, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-3-6
______
Provides an intense project-based learning experience around the design of medical devices with foci ranging from mechanical to electro mechanical to electronics. Projects motivated by real-world clinical challenges provided by sponsors and clinicians who also help mentor teams. Covers the design process, project management, and fundamentals of mechanical and electrical circuit and sensor design. Students work in small teams to execute a substantial term project, with emphasis placed upon developing creative designs — via a deterministic design process — that are developed and optimized using analytical techniques. Includes mandatory lab. Instruction and practice in written and oral communication provided. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments. Enrollment limited.
A. H. Slocum, E. Roche, N. C. Hanumara, G. Traverso, A. Pennes

2.750[J] Medical Device Design
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Same subject as 6.4860[J])
(Subject meets with 2.75[J], 6.4861[J], HST.552[J])
Prereq: 2.008, 6.2040, 6.2050, 6.2060, 22.071, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-3-6
______
Provides an intense project-based learning experience around the design of medical devices with foci ranging from mechanical to electro mechanical to electronics. Projects motivated by real-world clinical challenges provided by sponsors and clinicians who also help mentor teams. Covers the design process, project management, and fundamentals of mechanical and electrical circuit and sensor design. Students work in small teams to execute a substantial term project, with emphasis placed upon developing creative designs -- via a deterministic design process -- that are developed and optimized using analytical techniques. Includes mandatory lab. Instruction and practice in written and oral communication provided. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments. Enrollment limited.
A. H. Slocum, E. Roche, N. C. Hanumara, G. Traverso, A. Pennes

2.752 Development of Mechanical Products
______

Undergrad (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Subject meets with 2.753)
Prereq: 2.009, 2.750, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Focuses on evolving a product from proof-of-concept to beta prototype: Includes team building, project planning, budgeting, resource planning; models for scaling, tolerancing and reliability, patents, business planning. Students/teams start with a proof-of-concept product they bring to class or select from projects provided by instructor. In lieu of taking 12 units of 2.THU, Course 2 majors taking 2.752 may write a bachelor's thesis that documents their contributions to the product developed in the team project. Students taking the graduate version complete additional assignments. Enrollment limited; preference to Course 2 majors and minors.
Staff

2.753 Development of Mechanical Products
______

Graduate (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Subject meets with 2.752)
Prereq: 2.009, 2.750, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Focuses on evolving a product from proof-of-concept to beta prototype: Includes team building, project planning, budgeting, resource planning; models for scaling, tolerancing and reliability, patents, business planning. Students/teams start with a proof-of-concept product they bring to class or select from projects provided by instructor. In lieu of taking 12 units of 2.THU, Course 2 majors taking 2.752 may write a bachelor's thesis that documents their contributions to the product developed in the team project. Students taking the graduate version complete additional assignments. Enrollment limited.
Staff

2.76 Global Engineering
______

Graduate (Fall)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Subject meets with 2.760)
Prereq: 2.008 or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Combines rigorous engineering theory and user-centered product design to create technologies for developing and emerging markets. Covers machine design theory to parametrically analyze technologies; bottom-up/top-down design processes; engagement of stakeholders in the design process; socioeconomic factors that affect adoption of products; and developing/emerging market dynamics and their effect on business and technology. Includes guest lectures from subject matter experts in relevant fields and case studies on successful and failed technologies. Student teams apply course material to term-long projects to create new technologies, developed in collaboration with industrial partners and other stakeholders in developing/emerging markets. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
A. Winter

2.760 Global Engineering
______

Undergrad (Fall)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Subject meets with 2.76)
Prereq: 2.008 or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Combines rigorous engineering theory and user-centered product design to create technologies for developing and emerging markets. Covers machine design theory to parametrically analyze technologies; bottom-up/top-down design processes; engagement of stakeholders in the design process; socioeconomic factors that affect adoption of products; and developing/emerging market dynamics and their effect on business and technology. Includes guest lectures from subject matter experts in relevant fields and case studies on successful and failed technologies. Student teams apply course material to term-long projects to create new technologies, developed in collaboration with industrial partners and other stakeholders in developing/emerging markets. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
A. Winter

2.771[J] D-Lab: Supply Chains
______

Undergrad (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Same subject as 15.772[J], EC.733[J])
(Subject meets with 2.871)
Prereq: None
Units: 3-3-6
______
Introduces concepts of supply chain design and planning with a focus on supply chains for products destined to improve quality of life in developing countries. Topics include demand estimation, process analysis and improvement, facility location and capacity planning, inventory management, and supply chain coordination. Also covers issues specific to emerging markets, such as sustainable supply chains, choice of distribution channels, and how to account for the value-adding role of a supply chain. Students conduct D-Lab-based projects on supply chain design or improvement. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
Staff

2.772[J] Thermodynamics of Biomolecular Systems
______

Undergrad (Fall) Rest Elec in Sci & Tech
(Same subject as 20.110[J])
Prereq: (Biology (GIR), Calculus II (GIR), Chemistry (GIR), and Physics I (GIR)) or permission of instructor
Units: 5-0-7
Add to schedule Lecture: MWF10 (3-270) Recitation: MW4 (56-180) or TR10 (66-168) or TR11 (66-168) or TR1 (56-180) +final
______
Equilibrium properties of macroscopic and microscopic systems. Basic thermodynamics: state of a system, state variables. Work, heat, first law of thermodynamics, thermochemistry. Second and third law of thermodynamics: entropy and its statistical basis, Gibbs function. Chemical equilibrium of reactions in gas and solution phase. Macromolecular structure and interactions in solution. Driving forces for molecular self-assembly. Binding cooperativity, solvation, titration of macromolecules.
M. Birnbaum, P. Blainey, S. Manalis
Textbooks (Fall 2024)

2.777 Large and Complex Systems Design and Concept Development
______

Undergrad (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.778)
Prereq: 2.00B, 2.007, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Add to schedule Lecture: TR1-2.30 (5-234)
______
Examines structured principles and processes to develop concepts for large and complex systems. Term projects introduce students to large-scale system development with several areas of emphasis, including idea generation, concept development and refinement, system-level thinking, briefing development and presentation, and proposal generation. Interactive lectures and presentations guide students throughout the course to develop and deliver team presentations focused on solving large and complex problems. Includes a semester-long project in which students apply design tools/processes to solve a specific problem. Students taking graduate version complete the project individually.
S. Kim
No textbook information available

2.778 Large and Complex Systems Design and Concept Development
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Subject meets with 2.777)
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Add to schedule Lecture: TR1-2.30 (5-234)
______
Examines structured principles and processes to develop concepts for large and complex systems. Term projects introduce students to large-scale system development with several areas of emphasis, including idea generation, concept development and refinement, system-level thinking, briefing development and presentation, and proposal generation. Interactive lectures and presentations guide students throughout the course to develop and deliver individual and team presentations focused on solving large and complex problems. Includes a semester-long project in which students apply design tools/processes to solve a specific problem. Students taking graduate version complete project individually. Limited enrollment.
S. G. Kim
No textbook information available

Bioengineering

2.772[J] Thermodynamics of Biomolecular Systems
______

Undergrad (Fall) Rest Elec in Sci & Tech
(Same subject as 20.110[J])
Prereq: (Biology (GIR), Calculus II (GIR), Chemistry (GIR), and Physics I (GIR)) or permission of instructor
Units: 5-0-7
Add to schedule Lecture: MWF10 (3-270) Recitation: MW4 (56-180) or TR10 (66-168) or TR11 (66-168) or TR1 (56-180) +final
______
Equilibrium properties of macroscopic and microscopic systems. Basic thermodynamics: state of a system, state variables. Work, heat, first law of thermodynamics, thermochemistry. Second and third law of thermodynamics: entropy and its statistical basis, Gibbs function. Chemical equilibrium of reactions in gas and solution phase. Macromolecular structure and interactions in solution. Driving forces for molecular self-assembly. Binding cooperativity, solvation, titration of macromolecules.
M. Birnbaum, P. Blainey, S. Manalis
Textbooks (Fall 2024)

2.78[J] Principles and Practice of Assistive Technology
______

Undergrad (Fall)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Same subject as 6.4530[J], HST.420[J])
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 2-4-6
______
Students work closely with people with disabilities to develop assistive and adaptive technologies that help them live more independently. Covers design methods and problem-solving strategies; human factors; human-machine interfaces; community perspectives; social and ethical aspects; and assistive technology for motor, cognitive, perceptual, and age-related impairments. Prior knowledge of one or more of the following areas useful: software; electronics; human-computer interaction; cognitive science; mechanical engineering; control; or MIT hobby shop, MIT PSC, or other relevant independent project experience. Enrollment may be limited.
Staff

2.782[J] Design of Medical Devices and Implants
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Same subject as HST.524[J])
Prereq: (Biology (GIR), Chemistry (GIR), and Physics I (GIR)) or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Solution of clinical problems by use of implants and other medical devices. Systematic use of cell-matrix control volumes. The role of stress analysis in the design process. Anatomic fit: shape and size of implants. Selection of biomaterials. Instrumentation for surgical implantation procedures. Preclinical testing for safety and efficacy: risk/benefit ratio assessment. Evaluation of clinical performance: design of clinical trials. Project materials drawn from orthopedic devices, soft tissue implants, artificial organs, and dental implants.
Staff

2.785[J] Cell-Matrix Mechanics
______

Graduate (Fall)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Same subject as HST.523[J])
Prereq: (Biology (GIR), Chemistry (GIR), and 2.001) or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Mechanical forces play a decisive role during development of tissues and organs, during remodeling following injury as well as in normal function. A stress field influences cell function primarily through deformation of the extracellular matrix to which cells are attached. Deformed cells express different biosynthetic activity relative to undeformed cells. The unit cell process paradigm combined with topics in connective tissue mechanics form the basis for discussions of several topics from cell biology, physiology, and medicine.
Staff

2.787[J] Tissue Engineering and Organ Regeneration
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Same subject as HST.535[J])
Prereq: (Biology (GIR), Chemistry (GIR), and Physics I (GIR)) or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Add to schedule Lecture: TR11-12.30 (5-134)
______
Principles and practice of tissue engineering (TE) and organ regeneration (OR). Topics include factors that prevent the spontaneous regeneration of tissues/organs in the adult (following traumatic injury, surgical excision, disease, and aging), and molecular and cell-biological mechanisms that can be harnessed for induced regeneration. Presents the basic science of organ regeneration. Principles underlying engineering strategies for employing select biomaterial scaffolds, exogenous cells, soluble regulators, and physical stimuli, for the formation of tissue in vitro (TE) and regeneration of tissues/organs in vivo (OR). Describes the technologies for producing biomaterial scaffolds and for incorporating cells and regulatory molecules into workable devices. Examples of clinical successes and failures of regenerative devices are analyzed as case studies.
M. Spector, I. V. Yannas
Textbooks (Fall 2024)

2.788 Mechanical Engineering and Design of Living Systems
______

Graduate (Fall)
Prereq: None
Units: 4-2-6
Add to schedule Lecture: TR10.30-12 (37-212) Recitation: W1 (1-242)
______
For students interested in research at the interface of mechanical engineering, biology, and materials science. Specific emphasis lies on interfacing living systems with engineered materials and devices, and on engineering living system behavior.
M. Kolle, M. Guo
No textbook information available

2.789[J] D-Lab: Design for Scale
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Same subject as EC.797[J])
(Subject meets with 2.729[J], EC.729[J])
Prereq: None. Coreq: 2.008; or permission of instructor
Units: 3-2-7
Add to schedule Lecture: TR11.30-1 (N51-310) Lab: R1-2.30 (N51-310)
______
Explores the external factors affecting product development for people in low-resource settings in a project-based context. Students apply existing engineering skills in interdisciplinary teams to identify contextual limitations and develop previously established prototypes towards manufacturing-ready product designs for real-world project sponsors. Topics are presented within the context of the developing world and include technology feasibility and scalability assessment; value chain analysis; product specification; and manufacturing methodologies at various scales. Lessons are experiential and case study-based, taught by instructors with field experience and industry experts from product development consulting firms and the consumer electronics industry. Students taking graduate version complete additional written assignments.
M. Yang, H. Quintus-Bosz, S. Grama
No textbook information available

2.79[J] Biomaterials: Tissue Interactions
______

Graduate (Fall)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Same subject as HST.522[J])
Prereq: (Biology (GIR), Chemistry (GIR), and Physics I (GIR)) or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Principles of materials science and cell biology underlying the development and implementation of biomaterials for the fabrication of medical devices/implants, including artificial organs and matrices for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Employs a conceptual model, the "unit cell process for analysis of the mechanisms underlying wound healing and tissue remodeling following implantation of biomaterials/devices in various organs, including matrix synthesis, degradation, and contraction. Methodology of tissue and organ regeneration. Discusses methods for biomaterials surface characterization and analysis of protein adsorption on biomaterials. Design of implants and prostheses based on control of biomaterials-tissue interactions. Comparative analysis of intact, biodegradable, and bioreplaceable implants by reference to case studies. Criteria for restoration of physiological function for tissues and organs.
I. V. Yannas, M. Spector

2.791[J] Cellular Neurophysiology and Computing
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Same subject as 6.4810[J], 9.21[J], 20.370[J])
(Subject meets with 2.794[J], 6.4812[J], 9.021[J], 20.470[J], HST.541[J])
Prereq: (Physics II (GIR), 18.03, and (2.005, 6.2000, 6.3000, 10.301, or 20.110)) or permission of instructor
Units: 5-2-5
______
Integrated overview of the biophysics of cells from prokaryotes to neurons, with a focus on mass transport and electrical signal generation across cell membrane. First third of course focuses on mass transport through membranes: diffusion, osmosis, chemically mediated, and active transport. Second third focuses on electrical properties of cells: ion transport to action potential generation and propagation in electrically excitable cells. Synaptic transmission. Electrical properties interpreted via kinetic and molecular properties of single voltage-gated ion channels. Final third focuses on biophysics of synaptic transmission and introduction to neural computing. Laboratory and computer exercises illustrate the concepts. Students taking graduate version complete different assignments. Preference to juniors and seniors.
Staff

2.792[J] Quantitative and Clinical Physiology
______

Undergrad (Fall)
(Same subject as 6.4820[J], HST.542[J])
(Subject meets with 2.796[J], 6.4822[J])
Prereq: Physics II (GIR), 18.03, or permission of instructor
Units: 4-2-6
Add to schedule Lecture: TR9.30-11 (4-265) Recitation: W1 (34-301) or W2 (34-301)
______
Application of the principles of energy and mass flow to major human organ systems. Anatomical, physiological and clinical features of the cardiovascular, respiratory and renal systems. Mechanisms of regulation and homeostasis. Systems, features and devices that are most illuminated by the methods of physical sciences and engineering models. Required laboratory work includes animal studies. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
T. Heldt, R. G. Mark
Textbooks (Fall 2024)

2.793[J] Fields, Forces and Flows in Biological Systems
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Same subject as 6.4830[J], 20.330[J])
Prereq: Biology (GIR), Physics II (GIR), and 18.03
Units: 4-0-8
______
Introduction to electric fields, fluid flows, transport phenomena and their application to biological systems. Flux and continuity laws, Maxwell's equations, electro-quasistatics, electro-chemical-mechanical driving forces, conservation of mass and momentum, Navier-Stokes flows, and electrokinetics. Applications include biomolecular transport in tissues, electrophoresis, and microfluidics.
J. Han, S. Manalis

2.794[J] Cellular Neurophysiology and Computing
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Same subject as 6.4812[J], 9.021[J], 20.470[J], HST.541[J])
(Subject meets with 2.791[J], 6.4810[J], 9.21[J], 20.370[J])
Prereq: (Physics II (GIR), 18.03, and (2.005, 6.2000, 6.3000, 10.301, or 20.110)) or permission of instructor
Units: 5-2-5
______
Integrated overview of the biophysics of cells from prokaryotes to neurons, with a focus on mass transport and electrical signal generation across cell membrane. First third of course focuses on mass transport through membranes: diffusion, osmosis, chemically mediated, and active transport. Second third focuses on electrical properties of cells: ion transport to action potential generation and propagation in electrically excitable cells. Synaptic transmission. Electrical properties interpreted via kinetic and molecular properties of single voltage-gated ion channels. Final third focuses on biophysics of synaptic transmission and introduction to neural computing. Laboratory and computer exercises illustrate the concepts. Students taking graduate version complete different assignments.
Staff

2.795[J] Fields, Forces, and Flows in Biological Systems
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Same subject as 6.4832[J], 10.539[J], 20.430[J])
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Add to schedule Lecture: TR1-2.30 (4-231)
______
Molecular diffusion, diffusion-reaction, conduction, convection in biological systems; fields in heterogeneous media; electrical double layers; Maxwell stress tensor, electrical forces in physiological systems. Fluid and solid continua: equations of motion useful for porous, hydrated biological tissues. Case studies of membrane transport, electrode interfaces, electrical, mechanical, and chemical transduction in tissues, convective-diffusion/reaction, electrophoretic, electroosmotic flows in tissues/MEMs, and ECG. Electromechanical and physicochemical interactions in cells and biomaterials; musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and other biological and clinical examples. Prior undergraduate coursework in transport recommended.
C. Buie, A. Hansen
No textbook information available

2.796[J] Quantitative Physiology: Organ Transport Systems
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Same subject as 6.4822[J])
(Subject meets with 2.792[J], 6.4820[J], HST.542[J])
Prereq: 6.4810 and (2.006 or 6.2300)
Units: 4-2-6
Add to schedule Lecture: TR9.30-11 (4-265) Recitation: W1 (34-301) or W2 (34-301)
______
Application of the principles of energy and mass flow to major human organ systems. Anatomical, physiological and clinical features of the cardiovascular, respiratory and renal systems. Mechanisms of regulation and homeostasis. Systems, features and devices that are most illuminated by the methods of physical sciences and engineering models. Required laboratory work includes animal studies. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
T. Heldt, R. G. Mark
Textbooks (Fall 2024)

2.797[J] Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue Biomechanics
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Same subject as 3.053[J], 6.4840[J], 20.310[J])
(Subject meets with 2.798[J], 3.971[J], 6.4842[J], 10.537[J], 20.410[J])
Prereq: Biology (GIR) and 18.03
Units: 4-0-8
______
Develops and applies scaling laws and the methods of continuum mechanics to biomechanical phenomena over a range of length scales. Topics include structure of tissues and the molecular basis for macroscopic properties; chemical and electrical effects on mechanical behavior; cell mechanics, motility and adhesion; biomembranes; biomolecular mechanics and molecular motors. Experimental methods for probing structures at the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
M. Bathe, P. So, R. Raman

2.798[J] Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue Biomechanics
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Same subject as 3.971[J], 6.4842[J], 10.537[J], 20.410[J])
(Subject meets with 2.797[J], 3.053[J], 6.4840[J], 20.310[J])
Prereq: Biology (GIR) and 18.03
Units: 3-0-9
______
Develops and applies scaling laws and the methods of continuum mechanics to biomechanical phenomena over a range of length scales. Topics include structure of tissues and the molecular basis for macroscopic properties; chemical and electrical effects on mechanical behavior; cell mechanics, motility and adhesion; biomembranes; biomolecular mechanics and molecular motors. Experimental methods for probing structures at the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
P. So, R. Raman

2.799 The Cell as a Machine
______

Graduate (Fall)
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: 5.07, 7.05, or 18.03
Units: 3-3-6
______
Examines a variety of essential cellular functions from the perspective of the cell as a machine. Includes phenomena such as nuclear organization, protein synthesis, cell and membrane mechanics, cell migration, cell cycle control, cell transformation. Lectures are provided by video twice per week; live 3-hour recitation one evening per week. Course is taken simultaneously by students at multiple universities; homework and take-home exams common to all students. Preference to students in Courses 2 and 20.
Staff


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