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Course 7: Biology
IAP/Spring 2024


Undergraduate Subjects


Introductory Biology

All five subjects cover the same core material, comprising about 50% of the course, while the remaining material is specialized for each version as described below. Core material includes fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. These topics address structure and regulation of genes, structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells and how cells communicate with one another.

7.012 Introductory Biology
______

Undergrad (Fall) Biology
Prereq: None
Units: 5-0-7
Credit cannot also be received for 7.013, 7.014, 7.015, 7.016, ES.7012, ES.7013
______
Exploration into biochemistry and structural biology, molecular and cell biology, genetics and immunology, and viruses and bacteria. Special topics can include cancer biology, aging, and the human microbiome project. Enrollment limited to seating capacity of classroom. Admittance may be controlled by lottery.
C. Drennan, L. Guarente

7.013 Introductory Biology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Undergrad (Spring) Biology
Prereq: None
Units: 5-0-7
Credit cannot also be received for 7.012, 7.014, 7.015, 7.016, ES.7012, ES.7013
URL: https://biology.mit.edu/undergraduate/course-requirements/general-institute-requirement/
______
Genomic approaches to human biology, including neuroscience, development, immunology, tissue repair and stem cells, tissue engineering, and infectious and inherited diseases, including cancer. Enrollment limited to seating capacity of classroom. Admittance may be controlled by lottery.
Staff

7.014 Introductory Biology
______

Undergrad (Spring) Biology
Units: 5-0-7
Credit cannot also be received for 7.012, 7.013, 7.015, 7.016, ES.7012, ES.7013
Lecture: MWF11 (32-123) Recitation: TR9 (26-204) or TR10 (26-204, 4-145) or TR11 (26-204) or TR12 (26-204) or TR1 (26-204) or TR2 (26-204) or TR3 (26-204) +final
______
Studies the fundamental principles of biology and their application towards understanding the Earth as a dynamic system shaped by life. Focuses on environmental life science with an emphasis on biogeochemistry, population genetics, population and community ecology, evolution, and the impact of climate change. Enrollment limited to seating capacity of classroom. Admittance may be controlled by lottery.
G. C. Walker, D. Des Marais
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.015 Introductory Biology
______

Undergrad (Fall) Biology
Prereq: None
Units: 5-0-7
Credit cannot also be received for 7.012, 7.013, 7.014, 7.016, ES.7012, ES.7013
______
Emphasizes the application of fundamental biological principles to modern, trending topics in biology. Specific modules focus on antibiotic resistance, biotechnology (e.g., genetically-modified organisms and CRISPR-based genome editing), personal genetics and genomics, viruses and vaccines, ancient DNA, and the metabolism of drugs. Includes discussion of the social and ethical issues surrounding modern biology. Limited to 60; admittance may be controlled by lottery.
M. Laub, S. Vos

7.016 Introductory Biology
______

Undergrad (Spring) Biology
Prereq: None
Units: 5-0-7
Credit cannot also be received for 7.012, 7.013, 7.014, 7.015, ES.7012, ES.7013
Lecture: MWF10 (54-100) Recitation: TR9 (35-308) or TR10 (35-308, 8-205, 26-210) or TR11 (8-205) or TR12 (26-210) or TR1 (26-210) or TR2 (26-210) or TR3 (26-210) +final
______
Introduction to fundamental principles of biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics for understanding the functions of living systems. Covers examples of the use of chemical biology, the use of genetics in biological discovery, principles of cellular organization and communication, immunology, cancer, and engineering biological systems. In addition, includes 21st-century molecular genetics in understanding human health and therapeutic intervention. Enrollment limited to seating capacity of classroom. Admittance may be controlled by lottery.
S. Hrvatin, A. Martin
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.00 COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 and the Pandemic
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Undergrad (Fall)
Prereq: None
Units: 1-0-1 [P/D/F]
______
Lectures by leading experts on the fundamentals of COVID-19 epidemiology, coronavirus and host cell biology, immunity, vaccine development, clinical disease and therapy. Subject can count toward the 6-unit discovery-focused credit limit for first year students.
R. Young, F. Batista

7.002 Fundamentals of Experimental Molecular Biology
______

Undergrad (Fall, Spring) Partial Lab
Prereq: None
Units: 1-4-1
Lecture: M1-2.30 (45-230) Lab: W1-4.30 (68-074) or F1-4.30 (68-074)
______
Introduces the experimental concepts and methods of molecular biology. Covers basic principles of experimental design and data analysis, with an emphasis on the acquisition of practical laboratory experience. Satisfies 6 units of Institute Laboratory credit. Satisfies biology laboratory credit for pre-health professions. Enrollment limited.
Fall: T. Baker, T. Schwartz
Spring: T. Baker, T. Schwartz
No required or recommended textbooks

7.003[J] Applied Molecular Biology Laboratory
______

Undergrad (Fall, Spring) Partial Lab
(Same subject as 10.7003[J])
Prereq: 7.002
Units: 2-7-3
Lecture: T1 (68-181) Lab: T2-5,R1-5 (68-074) Recitation: T11-12.30 (68-121, 68-156)
______
Laboratory-based exploration of modern experimental molecular biology. Specific experimental system studied may vary from term to term, depending on instructor. Emphasizes concepts of experimental design, data analysis and communication in biology and how these concepts are applied in the biotechnology industry. Satisfies 6 units of Institute Laboratory credit. Enrollment limited; admittance may be controlled by lottery.
Fall: E. Calo
Spring: L. Case
No required or recommended textbooks

7.03 Genetics
______

Undergrad (Fall, Spring) Rest Elec in Sci & Tech
Prereq: Biology (GIR)
Units: 4-0-8
Lecture: MWF11 (32-141) Recitation: M1 (38-166) or T10 (38-166) or T11 (38-166) +final
______
The principles of genetics with application to the study of biological function at the level of molecules, cells, and multicellular organisms, including humans. Structure and function of genes, chromosomes, and genomes. Biological variation resulting from recombination, mutation, and selection. Population genetics. Use of genetic methods to analyze protein function, gene regulation, and inherited disease.
Fall: M. Gehring, P. Reddien
Spring: O. Corradin, F. Sanchez-Rivera
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.05 General Biochemistry
______

Undergrad (Spring) Rest Elec in Sci & Tech
Prereq: (Biology (GIR) and 5.12) or permission of instructor
Units: 5-0-7
Credit cannot also be received for 5.07, 20.507
Lecture: MWF9.30-11 (10-250) Recitation: M2 (26-210) or T11 (24-112) or T1 (26-142) or T3 (26-322) or T EVE (7.30 PM) (26-204) or W11 (36-112) or R11 (4-159) or M12.30 (8-205) or F1 (24-112) +final
______
Contributions of biochemistry toward an understanding of the structure and functioning of organisms, tissues, and cells. Chemistry and functions of constituents of cells and tissues and the chemical and physical-chemical basis for the structures of nucleic acids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Basic enzymology and biochemical reaction mechanisms involved in macromolecular synthesis and degradation, signaling, transport, and movement. General metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and nitrogen-containing materials such as amino acids, proteins, and related compounds.
A. Ringel, M. Vander Heiden, M. Yaffe
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.06 Cell Biology
______

Undergrad (Fall, Spring)
Prereq: 7.03 and 7.05
Units: 4-0-8
Lecture: TR9.30-11 (4-370) Recitation: F10 (26-204) or F11 (26-204) or F12 (26-204) or F1 (26-204) +final
______
Presents the biology of cells of higher organisms. Studies the structure, function, and biosynthesis of cellular membranes and organelles; cell growth and oncogenic transformation; transport, receptors, and cell signaling; the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix, and cell movements; cell division and cell cycle; functions of specialized cell types. Emphasizes the current molecular knowledge of cell biological processes as well as the genetic, biochemical, and other experimental approaches that resulted in these discoveries.
Fall: S. Lourido
Spring: K. Knouse, R. Lamason
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.08[J] Fundamentals of Chemical Biology
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Same subject as 5.08[J])
(Subject meets with 7.80)
Prereq: (Biology (GIR), 5.13, and (5.07 or 7.05)) or permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
Lecture: MW11-12.30 (56-114) Recitation: W3 (26-142) or W4 (26-142) or R3 (8-205) or R4 (8-205)
______
Spanning the fields of biology, chemistry, and engineering, this class introduces students to the principles of chemical biology and the application of chemical and physical methods and reagents to the study and manipulation of biological systems. Topics include nucleic acid structure, recognition, and manipulation; protein folding and stability, and proteostasis; bioorthogonal reactions and activity-based protein profiling; chemical genetics and small-molecule inhibitor screening; fluorescent probes for biological analysis and imaging; and unnatural amino acid mutagenesis. The class will also discuss the logic of dynamic post-translational modification reactions with an emphasis on chemical biology approaches for studying complex processes including glycosylation, phosphorylation, and lipidation. Students taking the graduate version are expected to explore the subject in greater depth.
B. Imperiali, R. Raines
No required or recommended textbooks

7.093 Modern Biostatistics
______

Undergrad (Spring); first half of term
(Subject meets with 7.573)
Prereq: 7.03 and 7.05
Units: 2-0-4
Ends Mar 22. Lecture: MW1-2.30 (4-370) Recitation: R9 (4-145) or F9 (56-114)
______
Provides a practical introduction to probability and statistics used in modern biology. Topics covered include discrete and continuous probability distributions, statistical modeling, hypothesis testing, independence, conditional probability, multiple test corrections, nonparametric methods, clustering, correlation, linear regression, principal components analysis with applications to high-throughput DNA sequencing, and image data analysis. Homework is in the R programming language, but prior programming experience is not required. Students taking the graduate version are expected to explore the subject in greater depth.
A. Jain, H. Wong
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.094 Modern Computational Biology
______

Undergrad (Spring); second half of term
(Subject meets with 7.574)
Prereq: 7.03 and 7.05
Units: 2-0-4
Begins Apr 1. Lecture: MW1-2.30 (4-370) Recitation: R9 (4-145) or F9 (56-114)
______
Introduces modern methods in computational biology, focusing on DNA/RNA/protein analysis. Topics include next-generation DNA sequencing and sequencing data analysis, RNA-seq (bulk and single-cell), and protein dynamics. Students taking the graduate version are expected to explore the subject in greater depth.
A. Jain, H. Wong
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.102 Introduction to Molecular Biology Techniques
______

Undergrad (IAP) Partial Lab
Prereq: None
Units: 0-5-1
URL: IAP URL: https://biology.mit.edu/undergraduate/current-students/subject-offerings/independent-activities-period/
______
Designed primarily for first-year students with little or no lab experience. Introduces basic methods of experimental molecular biology. Specific experiments vary from year-to-year, but will focus on the identification and characterization of bacteria and bacteriophages from the wild using an array of basic methods in molecular biology and microbiology. Biology GIR or Chemistry GIR recommended. Satisfies 6 units of Institute Laboratory credit. Limited to 16; admittance may be controlled by lottery.
A. Martin
No required or recommended textbooks

7.11 Biology Teaching
______

Undergrad (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: None
Units arranged
TBA.
______
For qualified undergraduate students interested in gaining some experience in teaching. Laboratory, tutorial, or classroom teaching under the supervision of a faculty member. Students selected by interview.
Fall: Staff
Spring: Staff
No required or recommended textbooks

7.19 Communication in Experimental Biology
______

Undergrad (Fall, Spring)
Prereq: (7.06 and (5.362, 7.003, or 20.109)) or permission of instructor
Units: 4-4-4
Lecture: TR2-4 (68-121)
______
Students carry out independent literature research. Journal club discussions are used to help students evaluate and write scientific papers. Instruction and practice in written and oral communication is provided. 
Fall: F. Batista, D. Housman
Spring: C. Kaiser
No required or recommended textbooks

7.20[J] Human Physiology
______

Undergrad (Fall)
(Same subject as HST.540[J])
Prereq: 7.05
Units: 5-0-7
______
Comprehensive exploration of human physiology, emphasizing the molecular basis and applied aspects of organ function and regulation in health and disease. Includes a review of cell structure and function, as well as the mechanisms by which the endocrine and nervous systems integrate cellular metabolism. Special emphasis on examining the cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and renal systems, as well as liver function, drug metabolism, and pharmacogenetics.
M. Krieger, O. Yilmaz

7.21 Microbial Physiology
______

Undergrad (Fall)
(Subject meets with 7.62)
Prereq: 7.03 and 7.05
Units: 4-0-8
______
Biochemical properties of bacteria and other microorganisms that enable them to grow under a variety of conditions. Interaction between bacteria and bacteriophages. Genetic and metabolic regulation of enzyme action and enzyme formation. Structure and function of components of the bacterial cell envelope. Protein secretion with a special emphasis on its various roles in pathogenesis. Additional topics include bioenergetics, symbiosis, quorum sensing, global responses to DNA damage, and biofilms. Students taking the graduate version are expected to explore the subject in greater depth.
G. C. Walker, A. J. Sinskey

7.23[J] Immunology
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Same subject as 20.230[J])
(Subject meets with 7.63[J], 20.630[J])
Prereq: 7.06
Units: 5-0-7
Lecture: MW9.30-11 (4-370) Recitation: W12 (56-167) or W EVE (7 PM) (66-168) or R4 (66-160)
______
Comprehensive survey of molecular, genetic, and cellular aspects of the immune system. Topics include innate and adaptive immunity; cells and organs of the immune system; hematopoiesis; immunoglobulin, T cell receptor, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins and genes; development and functions of B and T lymphocytes; immune responses to infections and tumors; hypersensitivity, autoimmunity, and immunodeficiencies. Particular attention to the development and function of the immune system as a whole, as studied by modern methods and techniques. Students taking graduate version explore the subject in greater depth, including study of recent primary literature.
S.Spranger, M. Birnbaum
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.24 Advanced Concepts in Immunology
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Subject meets with 7.84)
Prereq: 7.23
Units: 3-0-9
Lecture: F9-11 (56-154) Recitation: TBA
______
Provides a comprehensive and intensified understanding of the relevance of the immune system beyond immunity. Focuses on how the immune system intersects with all aspects of body homeostasis/physiology or disease and how the immune system can be manipulated therapeutically. New advances in the intersection of immunology with cancer biology, neurosciences, metabolism, aging, and maternal-fetal immunology or similar explored. Presents new modern methods and techniques applicable beyond immunology. Includes critical analysis and discussion of assigned readings. Students apply principles learned in class to generate a potential research project, presented in a written form. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
H. Moura Silva, S. Spranger
No required or recommended textbooks

7.26 Molecular Basis of Infectious Disease
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Subject meets with 7.66)
Prereq: 7.06
Units: 4-0-8
Lecture: MW9.30-11 (4-270) Recitation: F10 (4-149) or F11 (4-149) +final
______
Focuses on the principles of host-pathogen interactions with an emphasis on infectious diseases of humans. Presents key concepts of pathogenesis through the study of various human pathogens. Includes critical analysis and discussion of assigned readings. Students taking the graduate version are expected to explore the subject in greater depth.
E. Chen, R. Lamason
No required or recommended textbooks

7.27 Principles of Human Disease and Aging
______

Undergrad (Spring)
Prereq: 7.06
Units: 4-0-8
Lecture: MW11-12.30 (56-180)
______
Covers modern approaches to human diseases and aging, emphasizing the molecular and cellular basis of genetic diseases, infectious diseases, aging, and cancer. Topics include the genetics of simple and complex traits; karyotypic analysis and positional cloning; genetic diagnosis; evolutionary determination of aging, genetic and molecular aspects of aging, HIV/AIDs and other infectious diseases; the roles of oncogenes and tumor suppressors; the interaction between genetics and environment; animal models of human disease, cancer, and aging; and treatment strategies for diseases and aging. Includes a paper describing novel treatment options for a specific disease chosen by each student.
D. Housman, Y. Soto-Feliciano
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.28 Molecular Biology
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Subject meets with 7.58)
Prereq: 7.03; Coreq: 7.05
Units: 5-0-7
Lecture: TR11-1 (4-270) Recitation: W12 (66-154) or W EVE (7 PM) (66-154) +final
______
Detailed analysis of the biochemical mechanisms that control the maintenance, expression, and evolution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. Topics covered in lecture and readings of relevant literature include: gene regulation, DNA replication, genetic recombination, and mRNA translation. Logic of experimental design and data analysis emphasized. Presentations include both lectures and group discussions of representative papers from the literature. Students taking the graduate version are expected to explore the subject in greater depth.
S. Bell, E. Calo, Y. Soto-Feliciano
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.29[J] Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Same subject as 9.09[J])
Prereq: 7.05 or 9.01
Units: 4-0-8
Lecture: MW1-2.30 (46-3310) Recitation: F12 (46-3310) +final
______
Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous system. Emphasizes the cellular properties of neurons and other excitable cells. Includes the structure and biophysical properties of excitable cells, synaptic transmission, neurochemistry, neurodevelopment, integration of information in simple systems, and detection and information coding during sensory transduction.
T. Littleton, S. Prescott
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.30[J] Fundamentals of Ecology
______

Undergrad (Fall) Rest Elec in Sci & Tech
(Same subject as 1.018[J], 12.031[J])
Prereq: None
Units: 4-0-8
______
Fundamentals of ecology, considering Earth as an integrated dynamic living system. Coevolution of the biosphere and geosphere, biogeochemical cycles, metabolic diversity, primary productivity, competition and the niche, trophic dynamics and food webs, population growth and limiting factors. Population modeling, global carbon cycle, climate change, geoengineering, theories of resource competition and mutualism, allometric scaling, ecological genomics, niche theory, human population growth. Applied ecology.
D. Des Marais

7.31 Current Topics in Mammalian Biology: Medical Implications
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Undergrad (Fall)
Prereq: 7.06 or permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
______
Covers recent advances in mammalian cell and developmental biology with particular emphasis on approaches that utilize mouse genetics. Combines formal lectures on selected topics with readings of original papers which are discussed in class. Major emphasis on the implications of mechanisms of human genetic diseases. Topics include early mammalian development; genomic imprinting; X inactivation; embryonic stem cells; nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells; cell migration; nervous system development; and central nervous system degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Limited to 20.
F. Gertler, R. Jaenisch

7.32 Systems Biology
______

Undergrad (Fall)
(Subject meets with 7.81[J], 8.591[J])
Prereq: (18.03 and 18.05) or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Introduction to cellular and population-level systems biology with an emphasis on synthetic biology, modeling of genetic networks, cell-cell interactions, and evolutionary dynamics. Cellular systems include genetic switches and oscillators, network motifs, genetic network evolution, and cellular decision-making. Population-level systems include models of pattern formation, cell-cell communications, and evolutionary systems biology. Students taking graduate version explore the subject in more depth.
J. Gore

7.33[J] Evolutionary Biology: Concepts, Models and Computation
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Same subject as 6.4710[J])
Prereq: (6.100A and 7.03) or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Lecture: TR11-12.30 (56-114)
______
Explores and illustrates how evolution explains biology, with an emphasis on computational model building for analyzing evolutionary data. Covers key concepts of biological evolution, including adaptive evolution, neutral evolution, evolution of sex, genomic conflict, speciation, phylogeny and comparative methods, life's history, coevolution, human evolution, and evolution of disease.
R. Berwick, D. Bartel
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.340-7.344 Advanced Undergraduate Seminar
______

Undergrad (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: 7.06 or 7.28
Units: 2-0-4 [P/D/F]
URL: 7.340: https://biology.mit.edu/undergraduate/current-students/subject-offerings/advanced-undergraduate-seminars/
7.340: TBA.
7.341: Lecture: T2-4 (68-150)
7.342: Lecture: F12-2 (68-150)
7.343: Lecture: T12-2 (56-191)
7.344: TBA.
______
Seminars covering topics of current interest in biology with a focus on how to understand experimental methods and design and how to critically read the primary research literature. Small class size facilitates discussions and interactions with an active research scientist. Students visit research laboratories to see firsthand how biological research is conducted. Contact Biology Education Office for topics.
Fall: H. R. Horvitz
Spring: H. R. Horvitz
7.340: No required or recommended textbooks
7.341: No required or recommended textbooks
7.342: No required or recommended textbooks
7.343: No required or recommended textbooks
7.344: No required or recommended textbooks

7.345-7.349 Advanced Undergraduate Seminar
______

Undergrad (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: 7.06 or 7.28
Units: 2-0-4 [P/D/F]
7.345: TBA.
7.346: TBA.
7.347: TBA.
7.348: TBA.
7.349: TBA.
______
Seminars covering topics of current interest in biology with a focus on how to understand experimental methods and design and how to critically read the primary research literature. Small class size facilitates discussions and interactions with an active research scientist. Students visit research laboratories to see firsthand how biological research is conducted. Contact Biology Education Office for topics.
Fall: H. R. Horvitz
Spring: H. R. Horvitz
7.345: No required or recommended textbooks
7.346: No required or recommended textbooks
7.347: No required or recommended textbooks
7.348: No required or recommended textbooks
7.349: No required or recommended textbooks

7.35 Human Genetics and Genomics
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Subject meets with 7.75)
Prereq: 7.06, (7.03 and 7.05), or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Lecture: M9.30-12.30 (Whitehead-7TH)
______
Upper-level seminar offering in-depth analysis and engaged discussion of primary literature on the dimensions and phenotypic consequences of variation in human genes, chromosomes, and genomes. Topics include the human genome project; pedigree analysis; mutation and selection; linkage and association studies; medical genetics and disease; sex chromosomes and sex differences; the biology of the germ line; epigenetics, imprinting, and transgenerational inheritance; human origins; and evolutionary and population genetics. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments. Limited to 20 total for versions meeting together.
D. Page
No required or recommended textbooks

7.37[J] Molecular and Engineering Aspects of Biotechnology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Undergrad (Spring)
(Same subject as 10.441[J], 20.361[J])
Prereq: (7.06 and (2.005, 3.012, 5.60, or 20.110)) or permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
Credit cannot also be received for 7.371
______
Covers biological and bioengineering principles underlying the development and therapeutic use of recombinant proteins and stem cells; glycoengineering of recombinant proteins; normal and pathological signaling by growth factors and their receptors; receptor trafficking; monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics; protein pharmacology and delivery; stem cell-derived tissues as therapeutics; RNA therapeutics; combinatorial protein engineering; and new antitumor drugs.
Staff

7.371 Biological and Engineering Principles Underlying Novel Biotherapeutics
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Undergrad (Fall)
Prereq: 7.06
Units: 4-0-8
Credit cannot also be received for 7.37, 10.441, 20.361
______
Covers biological and bioengineering principles underlying the development and therapeutic use of recombinant proteins and immune cells. Special attention to monoclonal antibodies and engineered immune system cells as therapeutics; protein- and glyco- engineering to enhance protein function; protein pharmacology and delivery; nucleic acid- based biotherapeutics; generation of functional cells and tissues from embryonic stem cells and iPS cells; and immune cell-cancer cell interactions in cancer immunotherapy.
J. Chen, H. Lodish

7.45 The Hallmarks of Cancer
______

Undergrad (Fall)
(Subject meets with 7.85)
Prereq: None. Coreq: 7.06
Units: 4-0-8
______
Provides a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of cancer biology and cancer treatment. Topics include cancer genetics, genomics, and epigenetics; familial cancer syndromes; signal transduction, cell cycle control, and apoptosis; cancer metabolism; stem cells and cancer; metastasis; cancer immunology and immunotherapy; conventional and molecularly-targeted therapies; and early detection and prevention. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
M. Hemann, T. Jacks

7.46 Building with Cells
______

Undergrad (Fall)
(Subject meets with 7.86)
Prereq: 7.03 and 7.05
Units: 4-0-8
______
Focuses on fundamental principles of developmental biology by which cells build organs and organisms. Analyzes the pivotal role of stem cells in tissue maintenance or repair, and in treatment of disease. Explores how to integrate this knowledge with engineering tools to construct functional tissue structures. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments
L. Boyer, P. Li

7.458[J] Advances in Biomanufacturing
______

Undergrad (Spring); second half of term
(Same subject as 10.03[J])
(Subject meets with 7.548[J], 10.53[J])
Prereq: None
Units: 1-0-2 [P/D/F]
Begins Apr 1. Lecture: TR11-12.30 (66-148)
______
Seminar examines how biopharmaceuticals, an increasingly important class of pharmaceuticals, are manufactured. Topics range from fundamental bioprocesses to new technologies to the economics of biomanufacturing. Also covers the impact of globalization on regulation and quality approaches as well as supply chain integrity. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
A. Sinskey, S. Springs
No textbook information available

7.49[J] Developmental Neurobiology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Undergrad (Spring)
(Same subject as 9.18[J])
(Subject meets with 7.69[J], 9.181[J])
Prereq: 7.03, 7.05, 9.01, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Subject Cancelled Subject Cancelled
______
Considers molecular control of neural specification, formation of neuronal connections, construction of neural systems, and the contributions of experience to shaping brain structure and function. Topics include: neural induction and pattern formation, cell lineage and fate determination, neuronal migration, axon guidance, synapse formation and stabilization, activity-dependent development and critical periods, development of behavior. Students taking graduate version complete additional readings that will be addressed in their mid-term and final exams.
Staff

7.390 Practical Internship Experience in Biology
______

Undergrad (Fall, IAP, Spring, Summer) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: None
Units: 0-1-0 [P/D/F]
TBA.
______
For Course 7, 5-7, and 6-7 students participating in curriculum-related off-campus internship experiences in biology. Before enrolling, students must consult the Biology Education Office for details on procedures and restrictions, and have approval from their faculty advisor. Subject to department approval.  Upon completion, the student must submit a write-up of the experience, approved by their faculty advisor.
Fall: Staff
IAP: Staff
Spring: Staff
Summer: Staff
No required or recommended textbooks

7.391 Independent Study in Biology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Undergrad (Fall, Spring, Summer) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: None
Units arranged [P/D/F]
______
Program of study or research to be arranged with a department faculty member.
Fall: Staff
Spring: Staff
Summer: Staff

7.392 Independent Study in Biology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Undergrad (Fall, IAP, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: None
Units arranged
______
Program of study or research to be arranged with a department faculty member.
Fall: Staff
IAP: Staff
Spring: Staff

7.393 Independent Study in Genetics
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Undergrad (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: None
Units arranged
______
Program of study or research to be arranged with a department faculty member.
Fall: Staff
Spring: Staff

7.394 Independent Study in Biochemistry
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Undergrad (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: None
Units arranged
______
Program of study or research to be arranged with a department faculty member.
Fall: Staff
Spring: Staff

7.395 Independent Study in Cell and Molecular Biology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Undergrad (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: None
Units arranged
______
Program of study or research to be arranged with a department faculty member.
Fall: Staff
Spring: Staff

7.396 Independent Study in Experimental Biology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Undergrad (Fall, IAP, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: None
Units arranged [P/D/F]
______
Program of study or research to be arranged with a department faculty member.
Fall: Staff
IAP: Staff
Spring: Staff

7.C01 Machine Learning in Molecular and Cellular Biology
(New)
______

Undergrad (Spring)
(Subject meets with 3.C01[J], 3.C51[J], 7.C51, 10.C01[J], 10.C51[J], 20.C01[J], 20.C51[J])
Prereq: Biology (GIR), 6.100A, and 7.05; Coreq: 6.C01
Units: 2-0-4
Credit cannot also be received for 1.C01, 1.C51, 2.C01, 2.C51, 3.C01, 3.C51, 7.C51, 10.C01, 10.C51, 20.C01, 20.C51, 22.C01, 22.C51, SCM.C51
Lecture: F11 (6-120)
______
Introduces machine learning as a tool to understand natural biological systems, with an evolving emphasis on problems in molecular and cellular biology that are being actively advanced using machine learning. Students design, implement, and interpret machine learning approaches to aid in predicting protein structure, probing protein structure/function relationships, and imaging biological systems at scales ranging from the atomic to cellular. Students taking graduate version complete an additional project-based assignment. Students cannot receive credit without simultaneous completion of 6.C01.
C. Coley, J. Davis, E. Fraenkel, R. Gomez-Bombarelli
No required or recommended textbooks

7.S391 Special Subject in Biology
______

Undergrad (Fall, IAP, Spring, Summer) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
TBA.
______
Covers material in various fields of biology not offered by the regular subjects of instruction.
Fall: Staff
IAP: Staff
Spring: Staff
Summer: Staff
No required or recommended textbooks

7.S392 Special Subject in Biology
______

Undergrad (Fall, IAP, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
______
Covers material in various fields of biology not offered by the regular subjects of instruction.
Staff

7.S399 Special Subject in Biology
______

Undergrad (Fall, IAP, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged
______
Covers material in various fields of biology not offered by the regular subjects of instruction.
Fall: Staff
IAP: Staff
Spring: Staff

7.UR Undergraduate Research
______

Undergrad (Fall, IAP, Spring, Summer) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of department
Units arranged [P/D/F]
TBA.
______
Undergraduate research opportunities in the Department of Biology.
Fall: Staff
IAP: Staff
Spring: Staff
Summer: Staff
No required or recommended textbooks

7.URG Undergraduate Research
______

Undergrad (Fall, IAP, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of department
Units arranged
TBA.
______
Undergraduate research opportunities in the Department of Biology.
Fall: Staff
IAP: Staff
Spring: Staff
No required or recommended textbooks

Graduate Subjects

MIT-WHOI Joint Program in Oceanography

7.410 Applied Statistics
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Subject Cancelled Subject Cancelled
______
Provides an introduction to modern applied statistics. Topics include likelihood-based methods for estimation, confidence intervals, and hypothesis-testing; bootstrapping; time series modeling; linear models; nonparametric regression; and model selection. Organized around examples drawn from the recent literature.
WHOI Staff

7.411 Seminars in Biological Oceanography
______

Graduate (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
TBA.
______
Selected topics in biological oceanography.
Fall: WHOI Staff
Spring: WHOI Staff
No textbook information available

7.421 Problems in Biological Oceanography
______

Graduate (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
TBA.
______
Advanced problems in biological oceanography with assigned reading and consultation.
Fall: Information: M. Neubert (WHOI)
Spring: Information: M. Neubert (WHOI)
No textbook information available

7.430 Topics in Quantitative Marine Science
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 2-0-4
Subject Cancelled Subject Cancelled
______
Lectures and discussions on quantitative marine ecology. Topics vary from year to year.
WHOI Staff

7.431 Topics in Marine Ecology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 2-0-4
Subject Cancelled Subject Cancelled
______
Lectures and discussions on ecological principles and processes in marine populations, communities, and ecosystems. Topics vary from year to year.
Fall: WHOI Staff
Spring: WHOI Staff

7.432 Topics in Marine Physiology and Biochemistry
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 2-0-4
Subject Cancelled Subject Cancelled
______
Lectures and discussions on physiological and biochemical processes in marine organisms. Topics vary from year to year.
WHOI Staff

7.433 Topics in Biological Oceanography
______

Graduate (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 2-0-4
Lecture: W2.30-4 (54-827)
______
Lectures and discussions on biological oceanography. Topics vary from year to year.
Fall: WHOI Staff
Spring: S. Beaulieu
No textbook information available

7.434 Topics in Zooplankton Biology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 2-0-4
Subject Cancelled Subject Cancelled
______
Lectures and discussions on the biology of marine zooplankton. Topics vary from year to year.
Fall: WHOI Staff
Spring: WHOI Staff

7.435 Topics in Benthic Biology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 2-0-4
Subject Cancelled Subject Cancelled
______
Lectures and discussions on the biology of marine benthos. Topics vary from year to year.
Fall: WHOI Staff
Spring: WHOI Staff

7.436 Topics in Phytoplankton Biology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 2-0-4
Subject Cancelled Subject Cancelled
______
Lectures and discussion on the biology of marine phytoplankton. Topics vary from year to year.
Fall: WHOI Staff
Spring: WHOI Staff

7.437 Topics in Molecular Biological Oceanography
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 2-0-4
Subject Cancelled Subject Cancelled
______
Lectures and discussion on molecular biological oceanography. Topics vary from year to year.
Fall: WHOI Staff
Spring: WHOI Staff

7.438 Topics in the Behavior of Marine Animals
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 2-0-4
Subject Cancelled Subject Cancelled
______
Lectures and discussion on the behavioral biology of marine animals. Topics vary from year to year.
Fall: WHOI Staff
Spring: WHOI Staff

7.439 Topics in Marine Microbiology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 2-0-4
Subject Cancelled Subject Cancelled
______
Lectures and discussion on the biology of marine prokaryotes. Topics vary from year to year.
WHOI Staff

7.440 An Introduction to Mathematical Ecology
______

Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: Calculus I (GIR), 1.018, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Lecture: M10.30-12,R2.30-4 (54-827)
______
Covers the basic models of population growth, demography, population interaction (competition, predation, mutualism), food webs, harvesting, and infectious disease, and the mathematical tools required for their analysis. Because these tools are also basic to the analysis of models in biochemistry, physiology, and behavior, subject also broadly relevant to students whose interests are not limited to ecological problems.
M. Neubert
No textbook information available

7.470 Biological Oceanography
______

Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Lecture: TR10.30-12 (54-823)
______
Intended for students with advanced training in biology. Intensive overview of biological oceanography. Major paradigms discussed, and dependence of biological processes in the ocean on physical and chemical aspects of the environment examined. Surveys the diversity of marine habitats, major groups of taxa inhabiting those habitats, and the general biology of the various taxa: the production and consumption of organic material in the ocean, as well as factors controlling those processes. Species diversity, structure of marine food webs, and the flow of energy within different marine habitats are detailed and contrasted.
M. Pachiadaki, J. Pineda
No textbook information available

7.491 Research in Biological Oceanography
______

Graduate (Fall, Spring, Summer) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
TBA.
______
Directed research in biological oceanography not leading to graduate thesis and initiated prior to the qualifying exam.
Fall: WHOI Staff
Spring: WHOI Staff
Summer: WHOI Staff
No textbook information available

Microbiology (MICRO)

7.492[J] Methods and Problems in Microbiology
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Same subject as 1.86[J], 20.445[J])
Prereq: None
Units: 3-0-9
______
Students will read and discuss primary literature covering key areas of microbial research with emphasis on methods and approaches used to understand and manipulate microbes. Preference to first-year Microbiology and Biology students.
M. Laub, Staff

7.493[J] Microbial Genetics and Evolution
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Same subject as 1.87[J], 12.493[J], 20.446[J])
Prereq: 7.03, 7.05, or permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
______
Covers aspects of microbial genetic and genomic analyses, central dogma, horizontal gene transfer, and evolution.
A. D. Grossman, Staff

7.494 Research Problems in Microbiology
______

Graduate (Fall, Spring, Summer) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
TBA.
______
Directed research in the fields of microbial science and engineering.
Fall: Staff
Spring: Staff
Summer: Staff
No required or recommended textbooks

7.498 Teaching Experience in Microbiology
______

Graduate (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
TBA.
______
For qualified graduate students in the Microbiology graduate program interested in teaching. Classroom or laboratory teaching under the supervision of a faculty member.
Fall: Staff
Spring: Staff
No required or recommended textbooks

7.499 Research Rotations in Microbiology
______

Graduate (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: None. Coreq: 7.492 or 7.493; permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
TBA.
______
Introduces students to faculty participating in the interdepartmental Microbiology graduate program through a series of three lab rotations, which provide broad exposure to microbiology research at MIT. Students select a lab for thesis research by the end of their first year. Given the interdisciplinary nature of the program and the many research programs available, students may be able to work jointly with more than one research supervisor. Limited to students in the Microbiology graduate program.
Fall: Staff
Spring: Staff
No required or recommended textbooks

7.MTHG Microbiology Graduate Thesis
______

Graduate (Fall, IAP, Spring, Summer) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged
TBA.
______
Program of research leading to the writing of a PhD thesis. To be arranged by the student and the appropriate MIT faculty member.
Fall: Staff
IAP: Staff
Spring: Staff
Summer: Staff
No required or recommended textbooks

Biology

7.50 Method and Logic in Molecular Biology
______

Graduate (Fall)
Prereq: None. Coreq: 7.51 and 7.52; or permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
______
Logic, experimental design and methods in biology, using discussions of the primary literature to discern the principles of biological investigation in making discoveries and testing hypotheses. In collaboration with faculty, students also apply those principles to generate a potential research project, presented in both written and oral form. Limited to Course 7 graduate students.
I. Cheeseman, J. Lees, R. Lehmann, S. Vos, J. Weissman, Y. Yamashita

7.51 Principles of Biochemical Analysis
______

Graduate (Fall)
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 6-0-6
______
Principles of biochemistry, emphasizing structure, equilibrium studies, kinetics, informatics, single-molecule studies, and experimental design. Topics include macromolecular binding and specificity, protein folding and unfolding, allosteric systems, transcription factors, kinases, membrane channels and transporters, and molecular machines.
L. Case, A. Keating, R. T. Sauer

7.52 Genetics for Graduate Students
______

Graduate (Fall)
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
______
Principles and approaches of genetic analysis, including Mendelian inheritance and prokaryotic genetics, yeast genetics, developmental genetics, neurogenetics, and human genetics.
C. Kaiser

7.540[J] Advances in Chemical Biology
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Same subject as 5.54[J], 20.554[J])
Prereq: 5.07, 5.13, 7.06, and permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Introduction to current research at the interface of chemistry, biology, and bioengineering. Topics include imaging of biological processes, metabolic pathway engineering, protein engineering, mechanisms of DNA damage, RNA structure and function, macromolecular machines, protein misfolding and disease, metabolomics, and methods for analyzing signaling network dynamics. Lectures are interspersed with class discussions and student presentations based on current literature.
L. Kiessling, M. Shoulders, O. Johnson

7.546[J] Science and Business of Biotechnology
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Same subject as 15.480[J], 20.586[J])
Prereq: None. Coreq: 15.401; permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-6
Lecture: R EVE (3-6 PM) (Whitehead-AUDITORIUM) Recitation: T4 (68-180) or T EVE (5 PM) (68-180)
______
Covers the new types of drugs and other therapeutics in current practice and under development, the financing and business structures of early-stage biotechnology companies, and the evaluation of their risk/reward profiles. Includes a series of live case studies with industry leaders of both established and emerging biotechnology companies as guest speakers, focusing on the underlying science and engineering as well as core financing and business issues. Students must possess a basic background in cellular and molecular biology.
J. Chen, A. Koehler, A. Lo, H. Lodish
No required or recommended textbooks

7.548[J] Advances in Biomanufacturing
______

Graduate (Spring); second half of term
(Same subject as 10.53[J])
(Subject meets with 7.458[J], 10.03[J])
Prereq: None
Units: 1-0-2
Begins Apr 1. Lecture: TR11-12.30 (66-148)
______
Seminar examines how biopharmaceuticals, an increasingly important class of pharmaceuticals, are manufactured. Topics range from fundamental bioprocesses to new technologies to the economics of biomanufacturing. Also covers the impact of globalization on regulation and quality approaches as well as supply chain integrity. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
A. Sinskey, S. Springs
No textbook information available

7.549[J] Case Studies and Strategies in Drug Discovery and Development
______

Graduate (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Same subject as 15.137[J], 20.486[J], HST.916[J])
Prereq: None
Units: 2-0-4
______
Aims to develop appreciation for the stages of drug discovery and development, from target identification, to the submission of preclinical and clinical data to regulatory authorities for marketing approval. Following introductory lectures on the process of drug development, students working in small teams analyze how one of four new drugs or drug candidates traversed the discovery/development landscape. For each case, an outside expert from the sponsoring drug company or pivotal clinical trial principal investigator provides guidance and critiques the teams' presentations to the class.
A. W. Wood

7.55 Case Studies in Modern Experimental Design
______

Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 2-0-7
Lecture: F11-1 (4-253)
______
Focuses on enhancing students' ability to analyze, design and present experiments, emphasizing modern techniques. Class discussions begin with papers that developed or utilized contemporary approaches (e.g., quantitative microscopy, biophysical and molecular genetic methods) to address important problems in biology. Each student prepares one specific aim of a standard research proposal for a project that emphasizes research strategy, experimental design, and writing.
L. Guarente, A. Ringel
No required or recommended textbooks

7.571 Quantitative Analysis of Biological Data
______

Graduate (Spring); first half of term
Prereq: None
Units: 2-0-4
Ends Mar 22. Lecture: TR1-2.30 (56-114) Recitation: F3.30 (2-143) or F4.30 (2-143)
______
Application of probability theory and statistical methods to analyze biological data. Topics include: descriptive and inferential statistics, an introduction to Bayesian statistics, design of quantitative experiments, and methods to analyze high-dimensional datasets. A <em>conceptual</em> understanding of topics is emphasized, and methods are illustrated using the Python programming language. Although a basic understanding of Python is encouraged, no programming experience is required. Students taking the graduate version are expected to explore the subject in greater depth.
J. Davis
No required or recommended textbooks

7.572 Quantitative Measurements and Modeling of Biological Systems
______

Graduate (Spring); second half of term
Prereq: None
Units: 2-0-4
Begins Apr 1. Lecture: TR1-2.30 (56-114) Recitation: F3.30 (2-143) or F4.30 (2-143)
______
Quantitative experimental design, data analysis, and modeling for biological systems. Topics include absolute/relative quantification, noise and reproducibility, regression and correlation, and modeling of population growth, gene expression, cellular dynamics, feedback regulation, oscillation. Students taking the graduate version are expected to explore the subject in greater depth.
G.W. Li
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.573 Modern Biostatistics
______

Graduate (Spring); first half of term
(Subject meets with 7.093)
Prereq: 7.03 and 7.05
Units: 2-0-4
Ends Mar 22. Lecture: MW1-2.30 (4-370) Recitation: M4 (56-154) or F9 (56-114)
______
Provides a practical introduction to probability and statistics used in modern biology. Topics covered include discrete and continuous probability distributions, statistical modeling, hypothesis testing, independence, conditional probability, multiple test corrections, nonparametric methods, clustering, correlation, linear regression, principal components analysis with applications to high-throughput DNA sequencing and image data analysis. Homework is in the R programming language, but prior programming experience is not required. Students taking the graduate version are expected to explore the subject in greater depth.
A. Jain, H. Wong
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.574 Modern Computational Biology
______

Graduate (Spring); second half of term
(Subject meets with 7.094)
Prereq: 7.03 and 7.05
Units: 2-0-4
Begins Apr 1. Lecture: MW1-2.30 (4-370) Recitation: R9 (4-145) or F9 (56-114)
______
Introduces modern methods in computational biology, focusing on DNA/RNA/protein analysis. Topics include next-generation DNA sequencing and sequencing data analysis, RNA-seq (bulk and single-cell), and protein dynamics. Students taking the graduate version are expected to explore the subject in greater depth.
A, Jain, H. Wong
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.58 Molecular Biology
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Subject meets with 7.28)
Prereq: 7.03, 7.05, and permission of instructor
Units: 5-0-7
Lecture: TR11-1 (4-270) Recitation: W12 (66-154) or W EVE (7 PM) (66-154) +final
______
Detailed analysis of the biochemical mechanisms that control the maintenance, expression, and evolution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. Topics covered in lecture and readings of relevant literature include: gene regulation, DNA replication, genetic recombination, and mRNA translation. Logic of experimental design and data analysis emphasized. Presentations include both lectures and group discussions of representative papers from the literature. Students taking the graduate version are expected to explore the subject in greater depth.
S. Bell, E. Calo, Y. Soto-Feliciano
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.59[J] Teaching College-Level Science and Engineering
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Same subject as 1.95[J], 5.95[J], 8.395[J], 18.094[J])
(Subject meets with 2.978)
Prereq: None
Units: 2-0-2 [P/D/F]
______
Participatory seminar focuses on the knowledge and skills necessary for teaching science and engineering in higher education. Topics include theories of adult learning; course development; promoting active learning, problemsolving, and critical thinking in students; communicating with a diverse student body; using educational technology to further learning; lecturing; creating effective tests and assignments; and assessment and evaluation. Students research and present a relevant topic of particular interest. Appropriate for both novices and those with teaching experience.
J. Rankin

7.60 Cell Biology: Structure and Functions of the Nucleus
______

Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: 7.06 or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Lecture: TR9.30-11 (68-121)
______
Eukaryotic genome structure, function, and expression, processing of RNA, and regulation of the cell cycle. Emphasis on the techniques and logic used to address important problems in nuclear cell biology. Lectures on broad topic areas in nuclear cell biology and discussions on representative recent papers.
L. Boyer, R. Young
No required or recommended textbooks

7.61[J] Eukaryotic Cell Biology: Principles and Practice
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Same subject as 20.561[J])
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
______
Emphasizes methods and logic used to analyze structure and function of eukaryotic cells in diverse systems (e.g., yeast, fly, worm, mouse, human; development, stem cells, neurons). Combines lectures and in-depth roundtable discussions of literature readings with the active participation of faculty experts. Focuses on membranes (structure, function, traffic), organelles, the cell surface, signal transduction, cytoskeleton, cell motility and extracellular matrix. Ranges from basic studies to applications to human disease, while stressing critical analysis of experimental approaches. Enrollment limited.
M. Krieger, M. Yaffe

7.62 Microbial Physiology
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Subject meets with 7.21)
Prereq: 7.03, 7.05, and permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
______
Biochemical properties of bacteria and other microorganisms that enable them to grow under a variety of conditions. Interaction between bacteria and bacteriophages. Genetic and metabolic regulation of enzyme action and enzyme formation. Structure and function of components of the bacterial cell envelope. Protein secretion with a special emphasis on its various roles in pathogenesis. Additional topics include bioenergetics, symbiosis, quorum sensing, global responses to DNA damage, and biofilms. Students taking the graduate version are expected to explore the subject in greater depth.
G. C. Walker, A. J. Sinskey

7.63[J] Immunology
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Same subject as 20.630[J])
(Subject meets with 7.23[J], 20.230[J])
Prereq: 7.06 and permission of instructor
Units: 5-0-7
Lecture: MW9.30-11 (4-370) Recitation: W12 (56-167) or W EVE (7 PM) (66-168) or R4 (66-160)
______
Comprehensive survey of molecular, genetic, and cellular aspects of the immune system. Topics include innate and adaptive immunity; cells and organs of the immune system; hematopoiesis; immunoglobulin, T cell receptor, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins and genes; development and functions of B and T lymphocytes; immune responses to infections and tumors; hypersensitivity, autoimmunity, and immunodeficiencies. Particular attention to the development and function of the immune system as a whole, as studied by modern methods and techniques. Students taking graduate version explore the subject in greater depth, including study of recent primary literature.
S. Spranger, M. Birnbaum
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.64 Molecular Mechanisms, Pathology and Therapy of Human Neuromuscular Disorders
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Investigates the molecular and clinical basis of central nervous system and neuromuscular disorders with particular emphasis on strategies for therapeutic intervention. Considers the in-depth analysis of clinical features, pathological mechanisms, and responses to current therapeutic interventions. Covers neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Amyotropic Lateral Schlerosis, Frontal Temporal Dementia, and neuromuscular disorders, such as Myotonic Dystrophy, Facio Scapular Humoral Dystrophy, and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.
D. Housman

7.65[J] Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Core I
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Same subject as 9.015[J])
Prereq: None
Units: 3-0-9
______
Survey and primary literature review of selected major topic areas in molecular and cellular neurobiology. Covers nervous system development, axonal pathfinding, synapse formation and function, synaptic plasticity, ion channels and receptors, cellular neurophysiology, glial cells, sensory transduction, and relevant examples in human disease. Includes lectures and weekly paper write-ups, together with student presentations and discussion of primary literature. A final two-page research write-up is also due at the end of the term.
J. T. Littleton, M. Sheng

7.66 Molecular Basis of Infectious Disease
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Subject meets with 7.26)
Prereq: 7.06 and permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
Lecture: MW9.30-11 (4-270) Recitation: R4 (66-154) +final
______
Focuses on the principles of host-pathogen interactions with an emphasis on infectious diseases of humans. Presents key concepts of pathogenesis through the study of various human pathogens. Includes critical analysis and discussion of assigned readings. Students taking the graduate version are expected to explore the subject in greater depth.
E. Chen, R. Lamason
No required or recommended textbooks

7.68[J] Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience Core II
______

Graduate (Spring)
Not offered regularly; consult department
(Same subject as 9.013[J])
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Subject Cancelled Subject Cancelled
______
Survey and primary literature review of major areas in molecular and cellular neurobiology. Covers genetic neurotrophin signaling, adult neurogenesis, G-protein coupled receptor signaling, glia function, epigenetics, neuronal and homeostatic plasticity, neuromodulators of circuit function, and neurological/psychiatric disease mechanisms. Includes lectures and exams, and involves presentation and discussion of primary literature. 9.015 recommended, though the core subjects can be taken in any sequence.
Staff

7.69[J] Developmental Neurobiology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Spring)
(Same subject as 9.181[J])
(Subject meets with 7.49[J], 9.18[J])
Prereq: 9.011 or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Subject Cancelled Subject Cancelled
______
Considers molecular control of neural specification, formation of neuronal connections, construction of neural systems, and the contributions of experience to shaping brain structure and function. Topics include: neural induction and pattern formation, cell lineage and fate determination, neuronal migration, axon guidance, synapse formation and stabilization, activity-dependent development and critical periods, development of behavior. In addition to final exam, analysis and presentation of research papers required for final grade. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments. Students taking graduate version complete additional readings that will be addressed in their mid-term and final exams.
E. Nedivi

7.70 Regulation of Gene Expression
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
______
Seminar examines basic principles of biological regulation of gene expression. Focuses on examples that underpin these principles, as well as those that challenge certain long-held views. Topics covered may include the role of transcription factors, enhancers, DNA modifications, non-coding RNAs, and chromatin structure in the regulation of gene expression and mechanisms for epigenetic inheritance of transcriptional states. Limited to 40.
Staff

7.71 Biophysical Technique
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Subject meets with 5.78)
Prereq: 5.13, 5.60, (5.07 or 7.05), and permission of instructor
Units: 5-0-7
Lecture: MWF1.30-3 (56-191)
______
Introduces students to modern biophysical methods to study biological systems from atomic, to molecular and cellular scales. Includes an in-depth discussion on the techniques that cover the full resolution range, including X-ray crystallography, electron-, and light microscopy. Discusses other common biophysical techniques for macromolecular characterizations. Lectures cover theoretical principles behind the techniques, and students are given practical laboratory exercises using instrumentation available at MIT. Meets with 5.78 when offered concurrently. 
C. Drennan, T. Schwartz
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.72 Stem Cells, Regeneration, and Development
______

Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
Lecture: W9.30-12.30 (Whitehead-7TH)
______
Topics include diverse stem cells, such as muscle, intestine, skin, hair and hematopoietic stem cells, as well as pluripotent stem cells. Topics address cell polarity and cell fate; positional information and patterning of development and regeneration; limb, heart and whole body regeneration; stem cell renewal; progenitor cells in development; responses to wounding; and applications of stem cells in development of therapies. Discussions of papers supplement lectures.
R. Jaenisch, P. Reddien
No required or recommended textbooks

7.73 Principles of Chemical Biology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: 7.05 and permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Spanning the fields of biology, chemistry and engineering, class addresses the principles of chemical biology and its application of chemical and physical methods and reagents to the study and manipulation of biological systems. Topics include bioorthogonal reactions and activity-based protein profiling, small molecule inhibitors and chemical genetics, fluorescent probes for biological studies, and unnatural amino acid mutagenesis. Also covers chemical biology approaches for studying dynamic post-translational modification reactions, natural product biosynthesis and mutasynthesis, and high-throughput drug screening. Students taking the graduate version are expected to explore the subject in greater depth.
B. Imperiali, J. K. Weng

7.74[J] Topics in Biophysics and Physical Biology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Fall)
(Same subject as 8.590[J], 20.416[J])
Prereq: None
Units: 2-0-4 [P/D/F]
______
Provides broad exposure to research in biophysics and physical biology, with emphasis on the critical evaluation of scientific literature. Weekly meetings include in-depth discussion of scientific literature led by distinct faculty on active research topics. Each session also includes brief discussion of non-research topics including effective presentation skills, writing papers and fellowship proposals, choosing scientific and technical research topics, time management, and scientific ethics.
J. Gore, N. Fakhri

7.75 Human Genetics and Genomics
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Subject meets with 7.35)
Prereq: 7.52 or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Lecture: M9.30-12.30 (Whitehead-7TH)
______
Upper level seminar offering in-depth analysis and engaged discussion of primary literature on the dimensions and phenotypic consequences of variation in human genes, chromosomes, and genomes.  Topics include the human genome project; pedigree analysis; mutation and selection; linkage and association studies; medical genetics and disease; sex chromosomes and sex differences; the biology of the germ line; epigenetics, imprinting, and transgenerational inheritance; human origins; and evolutionary and population genetics. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments. Limited to 20 total for versions meeting together.
D. Page
No required or recommended textbooks

7.76 Topics in Macromolecular Structure and Function
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-6
______
In-depth analysis and discussion of classic and current literature, with an emphasis on the structure, function, and mechanisms of proteins and other biological macromolecules.
Staff

7.77 Nucleic Acids, Structure, Function, Evolution, and Their Interactions with Proteins
______

Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: 7.05, 7.51, or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Lecture: M EVE (3-6 PM) (68-121)
______
Surveys primary literature, focusing on biochemical, biophysical, genetic, and combinatorial approaches for understanding nucleic acids. Topics include the general properties, functions, and structural motifs of DNA and RNA; RNAs as catalysts and as regulators of gene expression; RNA editing and surveillance, and the interaction of nucleic acids with proteins, such as zinc-finger proteins, modification enzymes, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and other proteins of the translational machinery. Includes some lectures but is mostly analysis and discussion of current literature in the context of student presentations.
D. Bartel, A. Jain
No required or recommended textbooks

7.80 Fundamentals of Chemical Biology
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Subject meets with 5.08[J], 7.08[J])
Prereq: 5.13 and (5.07 or 7.05)
Units: 4-0-8
Lecture: MW11-12.30 (56-114) Recitation: W3 (26-142) or W4 (26-142) or R3 (8-205) or R4 (8-205)
______
Spanning the fields of biology, chemistry, and engineering, this class introduces students to the principles of chemical biology and the application of chemical and physical methods and reagents to the study and manipulation of biological systems. Topics include nucleic acid structure, recognition, and manipulation; protein folding and stability, and proteostasis; bioorthogonal reactions and activity-based protein profiling; chemical genetics and small-molecule inhibitor screening; fluorescent probes for biological analysis and imaging; and unnatural amino acid mutagenesis. The class will also discuss the logic of dynamic post-translational modification reactions with an emphasis on chemical biology approaches for studying complex processes including glycosylation, phosphorylation, and lipidation. Students taking the graduate version are expected to explore the subject in greater depth.
B. Imperiali, R. Raines
No required or recommended textbooks

7.81[J] Systems Biology
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Same subject as 8.591[J])
(Subject meets with 7.32)
Prereq: (18.03 and 18.05) or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
______
Introduction to cellular and population-level systems biology with an emphasis on synthetic biology, modeling of genetic networks, cell-cell interactions, and evolutionary dynamics. Cellular systems include genetic switches and oscillators, network motifs, genetic network evolution, and cellular decision-making. Population-level systems include models of pattern formation, cell-cell communication, and evolutionary systems biology. Students taking graduate version explore the subject in more depth.
J. Gore

7.82 Development, Disease and Therapeutics
______

Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9 [P/D/F]
Lecture: M EVE (3-6 PM) (Whitehead-7TH)
______
Seminar covering the key concepts and technological approaches that are used to study and treat human disease. Topics include human genome variation, germline editing, gene therapy, stem cell derived organoids, human-animal chimeras and the application of these approaches to the study and treatment of major diseases.
R. Jaenisch, R. Young
No required or recommended textbooks

7.84 Advanced Concepts in Immunology
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Subject meets with 7.24)
Prereq: None. Coreq: 7.63; or permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Lecture: F9-11 (56-154) Recitation: TBA
______
Provides a comprehensive and intensified understanding of the relevance of the immune system beyond immunity. Focuses on how the immune system intersects with all aspects of body homeostasis/physiology or disease and how the immune system can be manipulated therapeutically. New advances in the intersection of immunology with cancer biology, neurosciences, metabolism, aging, and maternal-fetal immunology or similar explored. Presents new modern methods and techniques applicable beyond immunology. Includes critical analysis and discussion of assigned readings. Students apply principles learned in class to generate a potential research project, presented in a written form. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
H. Moura Silva, S. Spranger
No required or recommended textbooks

7.85 The Hallmarks of Cancer
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Subject meets with 7.45)
Prereq: None. Coreq: 7.06; permission of instructor
Units: 4-0-8
______
Provides a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of cancer biology and cancer treatment. Topics include cancer genetics, genomics, and epigenetics; familial cancer syndromes; signal transduction, cell cycle control, and apoptosis; cancer metabolism; stem cells and cancer; metastasis; cancer immunology and immunotherapy; conventional and molecularly-targeted therapies; and early detection and prevention. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
M. Hemann, T. Jacks

7.86 Building with Cells
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Subject meets with 7.46)
Prereq: 7.03 and 7.05
Units: 4-0-8
______
Focuses on fundamental principles of developmental biology by which cells build organs and organisms. Analyzes the pivotal role of stem cells in tissue maintenance or repair, and in treatment of disease. Explores how to integrate this knowledge with engineering tools to construct functional tissue structures. Students taking graduate version complete additional assignments.
L. Boyer, P. Li

7.88[J] Protein Folding in Health and Disease
______

Graduate (Spring); first half of term
(Same subject as 5.48[J])
Prereq: (5.07 or 7.05) and permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-3
Ends Mar 22. Lecture: MW9-10.30 (4-149)
______
Focuses on understanding the chemical and biological mechanisms of protein folding, misfolding, aggregation, and quality control. Topics covered include: molecular mechanisms of protein folding; experimental and computational strategies to study protein folding; how cells fold and quality control proteins; protein misfolding and aggregation; proteostasis and human disease; strategies to address protein folding failures in disease; and protein folding in biotechnology development. Provides state-of-the-art understanding of the field, fosters ability to critically assess and use the literature, and empowers students to study and address protein folding issues in their research and beyond.
M. Shoulders
No textbook information available

7.89[J] Topics in Computational and Systems Biology
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Same subject as CSB.100[J])
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 2-0-10
______
Seminar based on research literature. Papers covered are selected to illustrate important problems and varied approaches in the field of computational and systems biology, and to provide students a framework from which to evaluate new developments. Preference to first-year CSB PhD students.
C. Burge

7.930[J] Research Experience in Biopharma
______

Graduate (Fall)
(Same subject as 20.930[J])
Prereq: None
Units: 2-10-0
______
Provides exposure to industrial science and develops skills necessary for success in such an environment. Under the guidance of an industrial mentor, students participate in on-site research at a local biopharmaceutical company where they observe and participate in industrial science. Serves as a real-time case study to internalize the factors that shape R&D in industry, including the purpose and scope of a project, key decision points in the past and future, and strategies for execution. Students utilize company resources and work with a scientific team to contribute to the goals of their assigned project; they then present project results to the company and class, emphasizing the logic that dictated their work and their ideas for future directions. Lecture component focuses on professional development.
Burge, Clarke

7.931 Independent Study in Biology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
______
Program of study or research to be arranged with a department faculty member.
Fall: Staff
Spring: Staff

7.932 Independent Study in Biology
______

Not offered academic year 2023-2024Graduate (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged
______
Program of study or research to be arranged with a department faculty member.
Fall: Staff
Spring: Staff

7.933 Research Rotations in Biology
______

Graduate (Fall, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
TBA.
______
Introduces students to faculty participating in the Biology graduate program through a series of lab rotations, which provide broad exposure to biology research at MIT. Students select a lab for thesis research by the end of their first year. Limited to students in the Biology graduate program.
Fall: Staff
Spring: Staff
No required or recommended textbooks

7.934 Teaching Experience in Biology
______

Graduate (Fall, IAP, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
TBA.
______
For qualified graduate students in the Biology graduate program interested in teaching. Classroom or laboratory teaching under the supervision of a faculty member.
Fall: Staff
IAP: Staff
Spring: Staff
No required or recommended textbooks

7.935 Responsible Conduct in Biology
______

Graduate (Fall, Spring)
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
TBA.
______
Sessions focus on the responsible conduct of science. Considers recordkeeping and reporting; roles of mentor and mentee; authorship, review, and confidentiality; resolving conflicts; misfeasance and malfeasance; collaborations, competing interests, and intellectual property; and proper practices in the use of animal and human subjects. Limited to second-year graduate students in Biology.
Fall: Staff
Spring: Staff
No textbook information available (IAP 2024); No required or recommended textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.936 Professional Development in Biology
______

Graduate (Fall, IAP, Spring, Summer) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: None
Units: 0-2-0 [P/D/F]
TBA.
______
Required for course 7 doctoral students to gain professional perspective in career development activities such as internships, scientific meetings, and career and networking events. Written report required upon completion of activities.
Fall: Staff
IAP: Staff
Spring: Staff
Summer: Staff
No textbook information available (IAP 2024); No required or recommended textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.941 Research Problems
______

Graduate (Fall, Summer) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
______
Directed research in a field of biological science, but not contributory to graduate thesis.
Fall: Consult Biology Education Office
Summer: Consult Biology Education Office

7.942 Research Problems
______

Graduate (Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
TBA.
______
Directed research in a field of biological science, but not contributory to graduate thesis.
Consult Biology Education Office
No required or recommended textbooks

7.95 Cancer Biology
______

Graduate (Spring)
Prereq: 7.85 and permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-9
Lecture: R EVE (4-6 PM) (Whitehead-7TH)
______
Advanced seminar involving intensive analysis of historical and current developments in cancer biology. Topics address principles of apoptosis, principles of cancer biology, cancer genetics, cancer cell metabolism, tumor immunology, and therapy. Detailed analysis of research literature, including important reports published in recent years. Enrollment limited.
R. Weinberg, O. Yilmaz
Textbooks (Spring 2024)

7.98[J] Neural Plasticity in Learning and Memory
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Same subject as 9.301[J])
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units: 3-0-6
Lecture: R1-4 (46-5313)
______
Examination of the role of neural plasticity during learning and memory of invertebrates and mammals. Detailed critical analysis of the current literature of molecular, cellular, genetic, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies. Student-directed presentations and discussions of original papers supplemented by introductory lectures. Juniors and seniors require instructor's permission.
S. Tonegawa
No textbook information available

7.C51 Machine Learning in Molecular and Cellular Biology
(New)
______

Graduate (Spring)
(Subject meets with 3.C01[J], 3.C51[J], 7.C01, 10.C01[J], 10.C51[J], 20.C01[J], 20.C51[J])
Prereq: Biology (GIR), 6.100A, and 7.05; Coreq: 6.C51
Units: 2-0-4
Credit cannot also be received for 1.C01, 1.C51, 2.C01, 2.C51, 3.C01, 3.C51, 7.C01, 10.C01, 10.C51, 20.C01, 20.C51, 22.C01, 22.C51, SCM.C51
Lecture: F11 (6-120)
______
Introduces machine learning as a tool to understand natural biological systems, with an evolving emphasis on problems in molecular and cellular biology that are being actively advanced using machine learning. Students design, implement, and interpret machine learning approaches to aid in predicting protein structure, probing protein structure/function relationships, and imaging biological systems at scales ranging from the atomic to cellular. Students taking graduate version complete an additional project-based assignment. Students cannot receive credit without simultaneous completion of 6.C01.
C. Coley, J. Davis, E. Fraenkel, R. Gomez-Bombarelli
No required or recommended textbooks

7.S930 Special Subject in Biology
______

Graduate (Fall, Spring, Summer) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
TBA.
______
Covers material in various fields of biology not offered by the regular subjects of instruction.
Fall: Staff
Spring: Staff
Summer: Staff
No required or recommended textbooks

7.S931 Special Subject in Biology
______

Graduate (Fall, Spring, Summer) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
TBA.
______
Covers material in various fields of biology not offered by the regular subjects of instruction.
Fall: Staff
Spring: Staff
Summer: Staff
No required or recommended textbooks

7.S932 Special Subject in Biology
______

Graduate (Fall, IAP, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Not offered regularly; consult department
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged [P/D/F]
______
Covers material in various fields of biology not offered by the regular subjects of instruction.
Staff

7.S939 Special Subject in Biology
______

Graduate (Fall, IAP, Spring) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged
TBA.
______
Covers material in various fields of biology not offered by the regular subjects of instruction.
Fall: Staff
IAP: Staff
Spring: Staff
No required or recommended textbooks

7.THG Graduate Biology Thesis
______

Graduate (Fall, IAP, Spring, Summer) Can be repeated for credit
Prereq: Permission of instructor
Units arranged
TBA.
______
Program of research leading to the writing of a Ph.D. thesis; to be arranged by the student and an appropriate MIT faculty member.
Fall: Staff
IAP: Staff
Spring: Staff
Summer: Staff
No required or recommended textbooks


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